Charitable Giving: Antecedents and
Charitable giving is important for modern society which refers to the voluntary donation to nonprofit organizations that benefits others beyond one’s own family. It is necessary to review the literatures of charitable giving as an independent theme, which may be helpful to the operation and development of relevant organizations. Researchers have extensively studied the antecedents of charitable giving from donors (demographic features, values, cognitive and emotional states), charities (organization characteristics and their interaction with donors) and social contexts (cultural features and social situations). However, further efforts are still needed on the development of integrated theory, exploration of its information processing and cross-cultural researches. Based on the review, we propose uncertainty to be an important factor which predicts that more uncertainty will lead to less charitable giving. Furthermore, different resources (giver, context and receiver) of uncertainty are discussed. At last, dual processing system is used to explain how uncertainty does work on charitable giving and that the connection of uncertainty and charitable giving will be stronger when analytic system works than intuitional system does.
文章引用: 陆柯雯 , 任孝鹏 (2014) 慈善捐款行为：影响因素及机制。 心理学进展， 4， 163-179. doi: 10.12677/AP.2014.42027
 定险峰, 刘华山(2011). 个体不幸情境下的慈善捐赠–共情的中介效应. 中国临床心理学杂志, 6期, 759-762.
 定险峰, 易晓明(2011). 群体灾难下的慈善捐赠–共情的中介效应. 中国临床心理学杂志, 3期, 363-366.
 李林, 石伟(2010). 西方志愿者行为研究述评. 心理科学进展, 10期, 1653-1659.
 孙彦, 李纾, 殷晓莉(2007). 决策与推理的双系统——启发式系统和分析系统. 心理科学进展, 5期, 721-845.
 Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211.
 Alpizar, F., Carlsson, F., & Johansson-Stenman, O. (2008). Anonymity, reciprocity, and conformity: Evidence from voluntary contributions to a national park in Costa Rica. Journal of Public Economics, 92, 1047-1060.
 Andreoni, J. (1989). Giving with impure altruism: Applications to charity and ricardian equivalence. The Journal of Political Economy, 97, 1447-1458.
 An-dreoni, J., & Petrie, R. (2004). Public goods experiments without confidentiality: A glimpse into fund-raising. Journal of Public Economics, 88, 1605-1623.
 Andrew Luccasen, R. (2012). Individual differences in contributions and crowd-ing-out of a public good. Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 59, 419-441.
 Anik, L., Aknin, L., Norton, M., & Dunn, E. (2009). Feeling good about giving: The benefits (and costs) of self-interested charitable behavior. Harvard Busi-ness School Marketing Unit Working Paper 10-012.
 Arumi, A., Wooden, R., Johnson, J., Farkas, S., Duffett, A., & Ott, A. (2005). The charitable impulse. New York: Public Agenda.
 Böhm, R., & Regner, T. (2013). Charitable giving among females and males: An empirical test of the competitive altruism hypothesis. Journal of Bioeconomics, 15, 1-17.
 Barkworth, L., Hibbert, S., Horne, S., & Tagg, S. (2002). Giving at risk? Examining perceived risk and blood donation behaviour. Journal of Marketing Management, 18, 905-922.
 Basil, D.Z., Ridgway, N.M., & Basil, M.D. (2006). Guilt appeals: The mediating effect of responsibility. Psychology & Marketing, 23, 1035-1054.
 Bateson, M., Nettle, D., & Roberts, G. (2006). Cues of being watched enhance cooperation in a real-world setting. Biology letters, 2, 412-414.
 Batson, C.D., & Powell, A.A. (2003). Altruism and prosocial behavior. Handbook of Psycholo-gy.
 Bekkers, R. (2001). Straight from the heart. Advances in Medical Sociology, 10, 197-221.
 Bekkers, R. (2005). It’s not all in the ask: Effects and effectiveness of recruitment strategies used by nonprofits in the Nether-lands.
 Bekkers, R. (2005). When and why matches are more effective subsidies than rebates.
 Bekkers, R. (2006). Traditional and health-related philanthropy: The role of resources and personality. Social Psychology Quarterly, 69, 349-366.
 Bekkers, R. (2008). Straight from the heart. Patients, Consumers and Civil Society, 10, 197-221.
 Bekkers, R., & Crutzen, O. (2007). Just keep it simple: A field experiment on fundraising letters. Interna-tional Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 12, 371-378.
 Bekkers, R., & Schuyt, T. (2008). And who is your neighbor? Explaining denominational differences in charitable giving and volunteering in the Netherlands. Review of Religious Research, 50, 74-96.
 Bekkers, R., & Wiepking, P. (2011). A literature review of empirical studies of philanthropy eight mechanisms that drive charitable giving. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 40, 924-973.
 Bennett, R. (2003). Factors underlying the inclination to donate to particular types of charity. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 8, 12-29.
 Bennett, R. (2009). Impulsive donation decisions during online browsing of charity websites. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 8, 116-134.
 Bennett, R., & Gabriel, H. (2000). Image building for charitable organizations. Social Marketing Quarterly, 6, 77-80.
 Bereczkei, T., Birkas, B., & Kerekes, Z. (2007). Public charity offer as a proximate factor of evolved reputation-building strategy: An experimental analysis of a real-life situation. Evolution and Human Behavior, 28, 277-284.
 Brockner, J., Guzzi, B., Kane, J., Levine, E., & Shaplen, K. (1984). Organizational fundraising: Further evidence on the effect of legitimizing small donations. Journal of Consumer Research, 11, 611-614.
 Brown, E., & Ferris, J.M. (2007). Social capital and philanthropy: An analysis of the impact of social capital on individual giving and volunteering. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 36, 85-99.
 Burgoyne, C.B., Young, B., & Walker, C.M. (2005). Deciding to give to charity: A focus group study in the context of the household economy. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 15, 383-405.
 Callen, J.L. (1994). Money donations, volunteering and organizational efficiency. Journal of Productivity Analysis, 5, 215228.
 Carpenter, J., & Myers, C.K. (2010) Why volunteer? Evidence on the role of altruism, image, and incentives. Journal of Public Economics, 94, 911-920.
 Chang, C.-T. (2007). Who gives what to charity? Characteristics affecting donation behavior. Social Behavior and Personality, 35, 1173-1180.
 Cheung, C.-K., & Chan, C.-M. (2000). Social-cognitive factors of donating money to charity, with special attention to an international relief organization. Evaluation and Program Planning, 23, 241-253.
 Choi, J.N. (2009). Collective dynamics of citizenship behaviour: What group characteristics promote group-level helping? Journal of Management Studies, 46, 1396-1420.
 Clark, J. (2002). Recognizing large donations to public goods: An experimental test. Managerial and Decision Economics, 23, 33-44.
 De Waal, F.B. (2008). Putting the altruism back into altruism: The evolution of empathy. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 279-300.
 Della Vigna, S., List, J.A., & Malmendier, U. (2009). Testing for altruism and social pressure in charitable giving. National Bureau of Economic Research.
 Dennis, B.S., Buchholtz, A.K., & Butts, M.M. (2009). The nature of giving a theory of planned behavior examination of corporate philanthropy. Business & Society, 48, 360-384.
 Diamond, W.D., & Noble, S.M. (2001). Defensive responses to charitable direct mail solicitations. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 15, 2-12.
 Dolinski, D., Grzyb, T., Olejnik, J., Prusakowski, S., & Urban, K. (2005). Let’s dialogue about penny: Effectiveness of dialogue involvement and legitimizing paltry contribution techniques1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35, 11501170.
 Doob, A.N., & McLaughlin, D.S. (1989). Ask and you shall be given: Request size and donations to a good cause1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 19, 1049-1056.
 Dye, R. (1980). Contributions of volunteer time: Some evidence on income tax effects. National Tax Journal, 33, 89-93.
 Eckel, C.C., & Grossman, P.J. (1996). Altruism in anonymous dictator games. Games and Economic Behavior, 16, 181-191.
 Eckel, C.C., & Grossman, P.J. (2000). Volunteers and pseudo-volunteers: The effect of recruitment method in dictator experiments. Experimental Economics, 3, 107-120.
 Eckel, C.C., & Grossman, P.J. (2004). Giving to secular causes by the religious and nonreligious: An experimental test of the responsiveness of giving to subsidies. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 33, 271-289.
 Ein-Gar, D., & Levontin, L. (2012). Giving from a distance: Putting the charitable organization at the center of the donation appeal. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 23, 197-211.
 Ekström, M. (2012). Do watching eyes affect charitable giving? Evidence from a field experiment. Experimental Economics, 15, 530-546.
 Gittell, R., & Tebaldi, E. (2006). Charitable giving: Factors influencing giving in US States. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 35, 721-736.
 Grace, D., & Griffin, D. (2006). Exploring conspicuousness in the context of donation behaviour. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 11, 147-154.
 Graddy, E., & Wang, L. (2009). Community foundation development and social capital. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 38, 392-412.
 Greenlee, J.S., & Gordon, T.P. (1998). The impact of professional solicitors on fund-raising in charitable organizations. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 27, 277-299.
 Haptonstahl Jr., S.R. (2009). But what’s in it for me? Characterizing uncertainty in bargaining. Saint Louis: Washington University.
 Harbaugh, W.T. (2002). Neural Responses to Taxation and Voluntary Giving. science, 296, 1644.
 Harbaugh, W.T., Mayr, U., & Burghart, D.R. (2007). Neural responses to taxation and voluntary giving reveal motives for charitable donations. science, 316, 1622-1625.
 Haski-Leventhal, D. (2009). Altruism and volunteerism: The perceptions of altruism in four disciplines and their impact on the study of volunteerism. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 39, 271-299.
 Havens, J.J., O’Herlihy, M.A., & Schervish, P.G. (2006). Charitable giving: How much, by whom, to what, and how. The Nonprofit Sector: A Research Handbook, 2, 542-567.
 Henderson, M.D., Huang, S.-C., & Chang, C.-C.A. (2012). When others cross psychological distance to help: Highlighting prosocial actions toward outgroups encourages philanthropy. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 220-225.
 Hoffman, E., McCabe, K., & Smith, V.L. (1996). Social distance and other-regarding behavior in dictator games. The American Economic Review, 86, 653-660.
 Hofstede, G. (1983). National cultures in four dimensions: A research-based theory of cultural differences among nations. International Studies of Management & Organization, 13, 46-74.
 Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Sage Publications, Incorporated.
 Hofstede, G., & Bond, M.H. (1984). Hofstede’s culture dimensions an independent validation using Rokeach’s value survey. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 15, 417-433.
 Homant, R.J. (2010). Risky altruism as a predictor of criminal victimization. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 37, 1195-1216.
 Huber II, J.T., & MacDonald, D.A. (2012). An investigation of the relations between altruism, empathy, and spirituality. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 52, 206-221.
 Jiobu, R.M., & Knowles, E.S. (1974). Norm strength and alms giving: An observational study. The Journal of Social Psychology, 94, 205-211.
 Kahneman, D. (2003). A perspective on judgment and choice: Mapping bounded rationality. American Psychologist, 58, 697.
 Karlan, D., & List, J.A. (2007). Does price matter in charitable giving? Evidence from a large-scale natural field experiment. The American Economic Review, 97, 1774-1793.
 Kemmelmeier, M., Jambor, E.E., & Letner, J. (2006). Individualism and good works cultural variation in giving and volunteering across the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 37, 327-344.
 Konow, J., & Earley, J. (2008). The hedonistic paradox: Is homo economicus happier? Journal of Public Economics, 92, 133.
 Kroptkin, P. (1902). Mutual aid: A factor of evolution. London: Heinemann.
 Lamy, L., Fischer-Lokou, J., & Guéguen, N. (2012). Priming emotion concepts and helping behavior: How unlived emotions can influence action. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 40, 55-61.
 Lee, Y.-K., & Chang, C.-T. (2007). Who gives what to charity? Characteristics affecting donation behavior. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 35, 1173.
 Leider, S., Möbius, M.M., Rosenblat, T., & Do, Q.-A. (2009). Directed altruism and enforced reciprocity in social networks. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 124, 1815-1851.
 Levine, R.V., Martinez, T.S., Brase, G., & Sorenson, K. (1994). Helping in 36 US cities. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 69-82.
 Levine, R.V., Norenzayan, A., & Philbrick, K. (2001). Cross-cultural differences in helping strangers. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32, 543-560.
 Mesch, D.J., Brown, M.S., Moore, Z.I., & Hayat, A.D. (2011). Gender differences in charitable giving. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 16, 342-355.
 Miller, D.T. (1999). The norm of self-interest. American Psychologist, 54, 1053-1060.
 Moll, J., Krueger, F., Zahn, R., Pardini, M., de Oliveira-Souza, R., & Grafman, J. (2006). Human fronto-mesolimbic networks guide decisions about charitable donation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103, 15623-15628.
 Naumann, S.E., & Ehrhart, M.G. (2011). Moderators of the relationship between group helping norms and individual helping. Small Group Research, 42, 225-248.
 Newman, G.E., & Shen, Y.J. (2012). The counterintuitive effects of thank-you gifts on charitable giving. Journal of Economic Psychology, 33, 973-983.
 Olsen, J.A., & Eidem, J.I. (2003). An inquiry into the size of health charities: the case of Norwegian patient organisations. Journal of Socio-Economics, 32, 457-466.
 Oyserman, D., Coon, H.M., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism: Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 3.
 Parsons, L.M. (2007). The impact of financial information and voluntary disclosures on contributions to not-for-profit organizations. Behavioral Research in Accounting, 19, 179-196.
 Piersma, N., & Jonker, J.-J. (2004). Determining the optimal direct mailing frequency. European Journal of Operational Research, 158, 173-182.
 Polonsky, M.J., & Grau, S.L. (2008). Evaluating the social value of charitable organizations: A conceptual foundation. Journal of Macromarketing, 28, 130-140.
 Pronin, E., Lin, D.Y., & Ross, L. (2002). The bias blind spot: Perceptions of bias in self versus others. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 369-381.
 Rand, D.G., Greene, J.D., & Nowak, M.A. (2012). Spontaneous giving and calculated greed. Nature, 489, 427-430.
 Roberts, J.A., & Roberts, C.R. (2012). Money matters: Does the symbolic presence of money affect charitable giving and attitudes among adolescents? Young Consumers: Insight and Ideas for Responsible Marketers, 13, 329-336.
 Sargeant, A., Ford, J., & West, D.C. (2000). Widening the appeal of charity. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 5, 318-332.
 Sargeant, A., & Woodliffe, L. (2007). Individual giving behaviour. New York: The Routledge Companion to Nonprofit Marketing, 117.
 Schlegelmilch, B.B., Diamantopoulos, A., & Love, A. (1997). Characteristics affecting charitable donations: empirical evidence from Britain. Journal of Marketing Practice: Applied Marketing Science, 3, 14-28.
 Schuyt, T., Bekkers, R., & Smit, J. (2010). The philanthropy scale: A sociological perspective in measuring new forms of prosocial behaviour. Social Work & Society, 8, 121-135.
 Shang, J., Reed, A., & Croson, R. (2008). Identity congruency effects on donations. Journal of Marketing Research, 45, 351361.
 Sheppard, B., & Cushman, F. (2010). Evaluating norms: An empirical analysis of the relationship between norm-content, operator, and charitable behavior. Vanderbilt Law Review, 63, 53.
 Shuper, P.A., Sorrentino, R.M., Otsubo, Y., Hodson, G., & Walker, A.M. (2004). A theory of uncertainty orientation implications for the study of individual differences within and across cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 35, 460480.
 Sigmund, K., & Hauert, C. (2002). Primer: Altruism. Current Biology: CB, 12, R270.
 Simon, A.F. (1997). Television news and international earthquake relief. Journal of Communication, 47, 82-93.
 Small, D.A., & Verrochi, N.M. (2009). The face of need: Facial emotion expression on charity advertisements. Journal of Marketing Research, 46, 777-787.
 Smith, J.R., & McSweeney, A. (2007). Charitable giving: The effectiveness of a revised theory of planned behaviour model in predicting donating intentions and behaviour. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 17, 363-386.
 Stutzer, A., Goette, L., & Zehnder, M. (2011). Active decisions and prosocial behaviour: A field experiment on blood donation. The Economic Journal, 121, F476-F493.
 Su, H., Chou, T., & Osborne, P.G. (2011). When financial information meets religion: Charitable-giving behavior in Taiwan. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 39, 1009-1019.
 Sweeney, J.W. (1973). An experimental investigation of the free-rider problem. Social Science Research, 2, 277-292.
 Tankersley, D., Stowe, C.J., & Huettel, S.A. (2007). Altruism is associated with an increased neural response to agency. Nature neuroscience, 10, 150-151.
 Todd, S.J., & Lawson, R.W. (1999). Towards a better understanding of the financial donor: An examination of donor behaviour in terms of value structure and demographics. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 4, 235-244.
 Trussell, J., & Parsons, L. (2007). Financial factors affecting donations to charitable organizations. Advances in Accounting, 23, 265-287.
 Twenge, J.M., Baumeister, R.F., DeWall, C.N., Ciarocco, N.J., & Bartels, J.M. (2007). Social exclusion decreases prosocial behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 56-66.
 Van Diepen, M., Donkers, B., & Franses, P.H. (2009). Does irritation induced by charitable direct mailings reduce donations? International Journal of Research in Marketing, 26, 180-188.
 Van Lange, P.A., Bekkers, R., Schuyt, T.N., & Van Vugt, M. (2007). From games to giving: Social value orientation predicts donations to noble causes. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 29, 375-384.
 Van Slyke, J.A. (2010). Cognitive and Evolutionary Factors in the Emergence of Human Altruism. Zygon, 45, 841-859.
 Verhaert, G.A., & Van den Poel, D. (2011). Empathy as added value in predicting donation behavior. Journal of Business Research, 64, 1288-1295.
 Vishwanath, A. (2003). Comparing online information effects a cross-cultural comparison of online information and uncertainty avoidance. Communication Research, 30, 579-598.
 Wang, L., & Graddy, E. (2008). Social capital, volunteering, and charitable giving. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 19, 23-42.
 Weerts, D.J., & Ronca, J.M. (2007). Profiles of supportive alumni: Donors, volunteers, and those who “do it all”. International Journal of Educational Advancement, 7, 20-34.
 Wiepking, P. (2008). For the love of mankind: A sociological study on charitable giving.
 Wiepking, P., & Breeze, B. (2012). Feeling poor, acting stingy: The effect of money perceptions on charitable giving. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 17, 13-24.
 Wiepking, P., & Maas, I. (2009). Resources that make you generous: Effects of social and human resources on charitable giving. Social Forces, 87, 1973-1995.
 Wilhelm, M.O., & Bekkers, R. (2010). Helping behavior, dispositional empathic concern, and the prin-ciple of care. Social Psychology Quarterly, 73, 11-32.
 Williams, C.L., West, S., & Klak, J. (2011). Community phi-lanthropy: How the delta region revives, embraces, and promotes the spirit of giving. The Foundation Review, 3, 1-2.
 Wilson, J. (2000). Volunteering. Annual Review of Sociology, 26, 215-240.
 Wilson, J. (2012). Volunteer-ism research a review essay. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 41, 176-212.
 Wilson, J., & Musick, M. (1997). Who cares? Toward an integrated theory of volunteer work. American Sociological Review, 62, 694-713.
 Winter, S.G. (1965). Economic “natural selection” and the theory of the firm. Yale University.
 Wu, A., & Lu, L.S. (2010). Cognitive obstacles against organ donation: The influence of negative attitudes, norms, and traditional beliefs on Chinese people’s intention to donate organs after death. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 21, 87-93.
 Zuckerman, M., Iazzaro, M.M., & Waldgeir, D. (1979). Undermining effects of the foot-in-the-door technique with extrinsic rewards. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 9, 292-296.