中国土地一级市场中农地非农化制度之初探:财产权的观点
Preliminary Exploration of China’s Farmland Conversion in the Primary Land Market: A Property Rights Approach

作者: 赖世刚 :国立台北大学不动产与城乡环境学系,新北市; 韩昊英 :浙江大学土地管理系,杭州; 周铭宏 :国立成功大学都市计划学系,台南;

关键词: 物权法财产权公共领域价格控制制度交易成本Property Law Property Right Public Domains Price Control System Transaction Costs

摘要: 中国自2007101日起实行物权法与2008年第十七届三中全会施行的农村政策,对中国实行社会主义的市场经济带来重大的冲击,由原本的集权城市规划转变为由市场经济主导。其对财产权的平等保护及公平竞争赋予了法律的保障,更能确保土地使用权者的权利,财产权更加明确地被界定出来,新的权利因为新的经济力量而产生。其中当农业用地转为非农业用地使用时,土地的财产权将从较低的农业土地产权,转变成与房地产开发结合成高价的城市土地产权,使得大量的财产权流入公共领域之中,对社会产生重大冲击。制度的转变是为了减少交易成本,促进市场交易,但由于中国相关法令与措施并不完善,反而造成社会对立,以及不必要的社会外部性成本,于是制度的转变反而不利弱势之农民,造成当前中国三农问题严重。就此,本研究针对中国土地一级市场导入财产权经济分析概念,分析土地一级市场制度出现的问题,使土地可以透过供需曲线加以分析,但供需分析中原先X轴的土地数量,应改为土地财产权的数量,此转变使土地变的像一般财货一样,可以在市场上移动且改变数量。透过土地一级市场的供需分析,了解中国土地一级市场受到土地征收补偿制度、农业土地移转制度、土地一级市场交易机制与房地市场政策制度的影响,而其中又以土地征收补偿制度的影响最大。

Abstract: The property law enacted on October 1st, 2007 and the rural policy enacted by the third Plenary Session of the 17th Central Committee of CPC in 2008 impact the socialist market economy in China seriously, reforming the driving power of the urban planning system from centralized bureaucracy to market force. The law and policy mentioned above legally ensure the equality of property, especially for the land users whose property can be defined more clearly, and new rights come into being as a result of new economic force. When the non-agriculturalization of farmland takes place, the land property will convert from a low-value agricultural property to a high-value urban land property integrated with real estate development, which results in a large flow of property into public domain and subsequently a great influence on the whole society. Theoretically, the institutional reform is designed to reduce transaction costs and smooth market activities, however, as a result of the imperfection of relevant laws and policy, the institutional reform in China instead inflicts social divisions and unnecessary social externality cost, worsening the situation of farmers, a vulnerable group and “the Three Agricultural Problems” in China. Thus, this research introduces economic analysis of property to analyze the problems in the primary land marker in China, and as a result, the land can be analyzed by the supply and demand curves yet in which the amount of land property replaces the amount of land as the variable of X-axis, making the quantity of land variable as general goods. The supply and demand analysis of the primary land market shows the effects of land expropriation compensation system, agricultural land conversion system, transaction system in primary land market and the policy in real estate market on the primary land marker in China, among which the land expropriation compensation system has the most impact.

文章引用: 赖世刚 , 韩昊英 , 周铭宏 (2014) 中国土地一级市场中农地非农化制度之初探:财产权的观点。 城镇化与集约用地, 2, 8-22. doi: 10.12677/ULU.2014.21002

参考文献

[1] 陈志伟 (1999) 交易成本、Coase定理与土地使用管制方法: 两个土地使用转变协商案例的含意. 国立成功大学, 台南.

[2] Alichian, A.A. and Demsetz, H. (1972) Production. Information costs, and economic organization. American Economic Review, 62, 777-795.

[3] Barzel, Y. (1999) Economic analysis of property rights. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999.

[4] 李寿喜, 谌瑜 (2008) 物权法关于财产所有权三分法的意义及其不足. 贵州财经学院学报, 4, 91-96.

[5] 张力 (2007) 对我国物权法关于企业财产权规定的二维解释. 河南大学学报(社会科学版), 47, 72-80.

[6] 曲澎, 丁石 (2007) 论《宪法》保护私人财产权利的意义和价值. 金融理论与教学, 4, 42-43.

[7] 宋娟红 (2007) 从私有财产权入宪看公民财产权利的宪法保护. 山西高等学校社会科学学报, 19, 93-95.

[8] 黄学贤 (2008) 我国公民财产权保障的宪法与行政法审视. 徐州师范大学学报(哲学社会科学版), 4, 24.

[9] 陈莹真 (2004) 土地征收补偿中的估价问题. 国立台北大学, 新北.

[10] 张婉怡 (2001) 土地登记制度对财产权保障之研究–从新制度经济学之观点. 国立政治大学, 台北.

[11] 廖显仁 (2004) 中国国有企业改革之研究–新制度经济学的观点. 东海大学, 台中.

[12] Coase, R.H. (1960) The problem of social cost. Journal of Law and Economics, 3, 1-44.

[13] Lai, W.C. and Hung, W.Y. (2008) The inner logic of the Coase theorem and a Coasian planning research Agenda. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 35, 207-226.

[14] 蔡伯俊 (2006) 以赛局理论探讨都市发展过程中地方政府与开发商互动行为. 国立台北大学, 新北.

[15] Coase, R.H. (1937) The nature of the firm. Economica, 4, 386-405.

[16] Demsetz, H. (1967) Toward a theory of property rights. American Economics Review, 57, 347-359.

[17] Calabresi, G. and Melamed, A.D. (1972) Property rules, liability rules, and in-alienability: On view of the cathedral. Harvard Law Review, 85, 1089-1128.

[18] Posner, R.A. (1986) Economic analysis of law. Little Brown, Boston.

[19] Nozick, R. (1974) Anarchy, state, and Utopia. Basic Books, New York.

分享
Top