“生态学”概念的嬗变及生态文明建设的内涵与实质——兼谈澳大利亚生态文明与社会和谐的几个视点
Conceptual Evolution of “Ecology” and Essence of Eco-Civilization Construction——With a Personal Look at the Eco-Civilization and Social Harmony in Australia

作者: 刘志霄 :吉首大学生物资源与环境科学学院,吉首;

关键词: “生态学”概念生态文明建设生态作为澳大利亚Concept of Ecology Eco-Civilization Construction Eco-Doings Australia

摘要:
基于对“生态学”概念基本内涵的理解,笔者认为生态学研究与应用的主要目标之一是生态调控,而生态调控是指“使生命系统内部协同,以及使生命系统整体与环境调适的行为”。这样,自然生态的维护、政治生态的协和、个人与社会生态的协调都可归结为“生态作为”或“生态关系的调整”。生态关系是指生命系统与环境系统之间的复杂关系,当然也包括生命系统内部的各种关系。生命系统具有多样性和层级性、暂稳性和自演性、整合性和非线性;环境系统具有多样性和多元性、扩展性和随机性、复杂性和非线性。环境系统因子的数量和质量都会随着生命系统内含的变化而变化,因此生态调控方式、方法也必然多种多样,可以不断综合与优化,产生越来越好的行为效果,但若作为不当,也会适得其反,即使是细小的不良作为,也可能会极度放大,产生极度恶劣的效应。生态文明是指生态思想与方法贯穿于人类生产与生活的各个方面,也即人类习惯于用生态学的原理与方法思考和处置生产与生活中的实际问题,以实现可持续发展与社会和谐。没有全球性共同的“生态作为”,也不会有全球性的生态安全、社会稳定与和谐发展。生态文明建设的实质就是“生态作为”的自觉、规范与实施过程。基于一年的访学经历,笔者把政治、教育、社交、环保、城建和交通作为视点对澳大利亚的生态文明与社会和谐进行了点滴简介,同时注意到,中国正处于建设具有自身特色的社会主义初级阶段,就像初升的太阳,前景无限美好!中国特色社会主义制度的优越性已令澳人震惊,近年澳洲“汉语和中国文化热”的兴起就是澳人渴望了解或通晓中国的集中体现。的确,人类需要不断地学习和进步,需要更多更好地了解自然、自身和他人,人类每上一个台阶,都会感觉到自己更加渺小,都会更加深切地体会到个人与大自然及社会和谐之奥妙,从而更加自觉努力地去促进这种和谐的生产与生活。然而,如何兼收并蓄,将中国优秀的传统文化与西方现代科技文化有机融合,构建具有中国特色的生态文化,自觉、规范化、创造性地“生态作为”,以全面推进我国的生态文明建设与社会和谐仍然是需要系统深入研究的课题。
Based on the discussion about the conceptual evolution of “Ecology”, this paper argues that the main aim of ecological research and application is “Ecological regulation and control”, which means the behaviors to make life-system inwardly-synergying while the entirety of life-system overall-adapting to its environments. So the conserving of natural ecosystems, the harmonizing of various political relationships, and the reconciling of social individuals per se and their social-eco-environment all may come down to “adjusting of eco-relationships” or “eco-doings”. Eco-relationships mean the complex connections between life-systems and their environment-systems, surely including internal ones of life-systems. Life-systems are of diversity and hierarchy, temporary-stability and self-evolutioning, conformability and nonlinearity while environment- systems are of diversity and multi-elementity, extensibility and stochasticity, complexity and nonlinearity. The quantities and qualities of environment-systems factors vary from the contents of life-systems, therefore, the ways and methods of “Ecological regulation and control” certainly are diversified, may continuously integrate and optimize to produce better and better doing-effects. However, if our doings are wrong, we will just see the opposite to what we wish, and even if there are some trivial wrong-doings, they may be extremely amplified and resulting in exceeding abominable effects. Eco-civilization implicates that Eco-idea-and-approach runs through all aspects of human productive activities and life, that is, we human beings are always used to thinking, considering and dealing with actual issues by ecological principles and methods in order to enforce sustainable development and social harmony. Eco-idea-and-approach is a master key of our humankind dealing with complicated issues and simultaneously obtaining well-beings. Without globally-common “Ecological doings” or “Eco-doings”, there would be no global ecological security, social stability and harmonic development. The essence of “Eco-civilization construction” is self-awareness, normalization and the implementing course of “Eco-doings”. In view of one-year visit to Australia, I hereby recommended simply some referential systematically and scientifically doings in politics, education, social activity, environmental protection, urban construction, and city transportation and administration in Australia. Meanwhile, I noticed that the learning for Chinese Language and Culture is growing there because many Aussie are eager for having a good acquaintance about Chinese history, tradition, and current situation, especially Chinese Characteristic Socialist System, which has been demonstrating its advantages and motivating Chinese economy and the whole society to develop rapidly with glorious perspectives like the rising sun. Indeed, human beings need to study unremittingly and make progress, to comprehend increasingly the nature, themselves and other nationalities and nations. Moreover, mankind can be aware of himself being smaller and smaller when he rises up to a new terrace each time, and realize deeply the subtleness among human individual, nature and society, and accordingly promote this harmonic production and life more conscientiously and industriously. Nevertheless, there still should be a pressing, systematical and deepgoing research task so as to fully improve Chinese Eco-civilization construction and social harmony on all aspects by integrating Chinese splendid traditional culture and Western modern sci-tech culture to well shape Chinese characteristic Eco-culture and to make “Ecological doings”, consciously, normalizingly and creatively.

文章引用: 刘志霄 (2014) “生态学”概念的嬗变及生态文明建设的内涵与实质——兼谈澳大利亚生态文明与社会和谐的几个视点。 世界生态学, 3, 13-19. doi: 10.12677/IJE.2014.31003

参考文献

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