社会排斥后的认知反应
Cognitive Reactions after Social Exclusion

作者: 金 静 , 胡金生 :辽宁师范大学心理学院,大连;

关键词: 社会排斥认知归属需要Social Exclusion Cognition The Need to Belong

摘要: 社会排斥会阻碍归属需要,使被排斥者通过改变认知进行应对。社会排斥后的认知反应主要包括:为了满足归属需要而产生的趋近性认知反应,例如,社会信息关注、积极情绪信息偏好、温暖事物偏爱,以及传统家庭角色观念增强、宗教依附性增加、金钱意识激发等社会认知偏移;为了避免归属需要受到更多损害而产生的逃避性认知反应,表现为痛觉麻木、敌意激活与认知解体;对其他竞争性认知过程的抑制,其解释涉及情绪抑制和契约打破两种观点。未来,该领域的研究应该提高实验范式的生态效度、重视个体差异的研究、加强认知调节策略的探索,推进多水平研究。
 Social exclusion thwarts the basic human need to belong, triggering a variety of cognitive coping reactions. The cognitive reactions after social exclusion include: First, the cognition that helps to meet the belonging need is approached, such as concerning social information, tuning to positivity, preferring warm stuff as well as fortifying traditional family roles, increasing religious affiliation and enhancing money consciousness. Second, excluded people may avoid the cognition that threatens the need to belong, in the form of pain-numbing, hostile cognitive bias and the cognitive deconstruction state. Last, other competitive cognition processes will be suppressed which can be explained by the hypothesis of emotion suppression or bargain break. More ecological paradigms need to be developed; individual differences should be emphasized in future studies. Research on cognitive regulation strategy and multilevel studies is also the possible direction.

文章引用: 金 静 , 胡金生 (2014) 社会排斥后的认知反应。 心理学进展, 4, 96-103. doi: 10.12677/AP.2014.41017

参考文献

[1] Aydin, N., Fischer, P., & Frey, D. (2010). Turning to god in the face of ostracism: Effects of social exclusion on religiousness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 742-753.

[2] Aydin, N., Graupmann, V., Fischer, J., Frey, D., & Fischer, P. (2011). My role is my castle—The appeal of family roles after experiencing social exclusion. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 981-986.

[3] Bastian, B., & Haslam, N. (2010). Excluded from humanity: The dehumanizing effects of social ostracism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 107-113.

[4] Baumeister, R. F., DeWall, C. N., Ciarocco, N. J., & Twenge, J. M. (2005). Social exclusion impairs self-regulation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 589-604.

[5] Baumeister, R. F., & Sommer, K. L. (1997). What do men want? Gender differences and two spheres of belongingness: Comment on Cross and Madson. Psychological Bulletin, 122, 38-44.

[6] Baumeister, R. F., Twenge, J. M., & Nuss, C. K. (2002). Effects of social exclusion on cognitive processes: Anticipated aloneness reduces intelligent thought. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 817-827.

[7] Bernstein, M. J., Sacco, D. F., Brown, C. M., Young, S. G., & Claypool, H. M. (2010). A preference for genuine smiles following social exclusion. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 196-199.

[8] Bernstein, M. J., Young, S. G., Brown, C. M., Sacco, D. F., & Claypool, H. M. (2008). Adaptive responses to social exclusion: Social rejection improves detection of real and fake smiles. Psychological Science, 19, 981-983.

[9] Blackhart, G. C., Nelson, B. C., Knowles, M. L., & Baumeister, R. F. (2009). Rejection elicits emotional reactions but neither causes immediate distress nor lowers self-esteem: A meta-analytic review of 192 studies on social exclusion. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 13, 269-309.

[10] Burson, A., Crocker, J., & Mischkowski, D. (2012). Two types of value-affirmation: Implications for self-control following social exclusion. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3, 510-516.

[11] Chernyak, N., & Zayas, V. (2010). Being excluded by one means being excluded by all: Perceiving exclusion from inclusive others during one-person social exclusion. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 582-585.

[12] DeWall, C. N., & Baumeister, R. F. (2006). Alone but feeling no pain: Effects of social exclusion on physical pain tolerance and pain threshold, affective forecasting, and interpersonal empathy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 1-15.

[13] DeWall, C. N., Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (2008). Satiated with belongingness? Effects of acceptance, rejection, and task framing on self-regulatory performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 1367-1382.

[14] DeWall, C. N., Deckman, T., Pond, R. S., & Bonser, I. (2011). Belongingness as a core personality trait: How social exclusion influences social functioning and personality expression. Journal of Personality, 79, 1281-1314.

[15] DeWall, C. N., MacDonald, G., Webster, G. D., Masten, C. L., Baumeister, R. F., Powell, C., et al. (2010). Acetaminophen reduces social pain: Behavioral and neural evidence. Psychological Science, 21, 931-937.

[16] DeWall, C. N., Maner, J. K., & Rouby, D. A. (2009). Social exclusion and early-stage interpersonal perception: Selective attention to signs of acceptance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 729-741.

[17] DeWall, C. N., Twenge, J. M., Bushman, B., Im, C., & Williams, K. (2010). A little acceptance goes a long way: Applying social impact theory to the rejection-aggression link. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1, 168-174.

[18] DeWall, C. N., Twenge, J. M., Gitter, S. A., & Baumeister, R. F. (2009). It’s the thought that counts: The role of hostile cognition in shaping aggressive responses to social exclusion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 45-59.

[19] DeWall, C. N., Twenge, J. M., Koole, S. L., Baumeister, R. F., Marquez, A., & Reid, M. W. (2011). Automatic emotion regulation after social exclusion: Tuning to positivity. Emotion, 11, 623-636.

[20] Eisenberger, N. I., Lieberman, M. D., & Williams, K. D. (2003). Does rejection hurt? An fMRI study of social exclusion. Science, 302, 290292.

[21] Epley, N., Akalis, S., Waytz, A., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2008). Creating social connection through inferential reproduction: Loneliness and perceived agency in gadgets, gods, and greyhounds. Psychological Science, 19, 114-120.

[22] Gardner, W. L., Pickett, C. L., & Brewer, M. B. (2000). Social exclusion and selective memory: How the need to belong influences memory for social events. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 486-496.

[23] Hess, Y. D., & Pickett, C. L. (2010). Social rejection and self-versus other-awareness. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 453-456.

[24] Ijzerman, H., Gallucci, M., Pouw, W. T., Weiβgerber, S. C., Van Doesum, N. J., & Williams, K. D. (2012). Cold-blooded loneliness: Social exclusion leads to lower skin temperatures. Acta Psychologica, 140, 283-288.

[25] Khatcherian, S. (2011). Neural activity during social exclusion: An exploratory examination. Unpublished Doctorial Dissertation, Illinois Wesleyan Universi-ty.

[26] Lea, S. E., & Webley, P. (2006). Money as tool, money as drug: The biological psychology of a strong incentive. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 29, 161-209.

[27] MacDonald, G., & Leary, M. R. (2005). Why does social exclusion hurt? The relationship between social and physical pain. Psychological Bulletin, 131, 202-223.

[28] Maner, J. K., DeWall, C. N., Baumeister, R. F., & Schaller, M. (2007). Does social exclusion motivate interpersonal reconnection? Resolving the “porcupine problem”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 42-55.

[29] McIntosh, N. D., Silver, C. R., & Wortman, B. C. (1993). Religion’s role in adjustment to a negative life event: Coping with the loss of a child. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 812-821.

[30] Polich, J. (2007). Updating P300: An integrative theory of P3a and P3b. Clinical Neurophysiology, 118, 2128-2148.

[31] Richman, L. S., & Leary, M. R. (2009). Reactions to discrimination, stigmatization, ostracism, and other forms of interpersonal rejection: A multimotive model. Psychological Review, 116, 365-383.

[32] Stillman, T. F., Baumeister, R. F., Lambert, N. M., Crescioni, A. W., DeWall, C. N., & Fincham, F. D. (2009). Alone and without purpose: Life loses meaning following social exclusion. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 686-694.

[33] Twenge, J. M., Catanese, K. R., & Baumeister, R. F. (2003). Social exclusion and the deconstructed state: Time perception, meaninglessness, lethargy, lack of emotion, and self-awareness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 409-423.

[34] Warburton, W. A., Williams, K. D., & Cairns, D. R. (2006). When ostracism leads to aggression: The moderating effects of control deprivation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 213-220.

[35] Williams, L. E., & Bargh, J. A. (2008). Experiencing physical warmth promotes interpersonal warmth. Science, 322, 606-607.

[36] Zadro, L., Boland, C., & Richardson, R. (2006). How long does it last? The persistence of the effects of ostracism in the socially anxious. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 692-697.

[37] Zadro, L., Williams, K. D., & Richardson, R. (2005). Riding the ‘O’train: Comparing the effects of ostracism and verbal dispute on targets and sources. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 8, 125-143.

[38] Zhong, C. B., & Leonardelli, G. J. (2008). Cold and lonely: Does social exclusion literally feel cold? Psychological Science, 19, 838842.

[39] Zhou, X., Vohs, K. D., & Baumeister, R. F. (2009). The symbolic power of money: Reminders of money alter social distress and physical pain. Psychological Science, 20, 700-706.

分享
Top