稀有植物山东银莲花(Anemone shikokiana (Makino) Makino)的核型分析及其生境对染色体变异的影响
Karyotype Analysis and Influence of Habitats on Chromosomal Variation of Rare Plant Anemone shikokiana (Makino) Makino

作者: 王 鸷 , 逄玉娟 , 刘传林 , 庄树宏 , 卞福花 :烟台大学生命科学学院,烟台;

关键词: 山东银莲花稀有植物核型染色体变异生境Anemone shikokiana Rare Plant Karyotype Chromosomal Variation Habitat

摘要:
山东银莲花(Anemone shikokiana)分布极其狭域,典型的稀有物种,具有很高的研究价值。主要分布于含有大量腐殖土的针阔混交林下和含砂壤土的干旱山顶灌丛。植物的核型对其后续研究至关重要,本研究采用常规压片法和Levan的核型分析方法,首次研究了山东银莲花的染色体数目及核型,结果表明:体细胞中期染色体数目为14,核型公式为2n = 2X = 14 = 12m + 2t,核型为2A型,核型不对称系数(A.S.K%)56.5%,染色体相对长度组成为2n = 2X = 14 = 12L +2M1。为了探索生境对染色体的影响,对染色体的性状进行了巢式方差分析,发现不同生境的居群间染色体形态和大小变异不显著,居群内染色体的形态和大小存在一定程度的变异,表明山东银莲花染色体的变异存在于小尺度范围内,大尺度范围的变异可能由于足够大的群体足够多的个体而导致染色体水平的相互抵消。本研究为今后进一步研究打下一定的基础

Abstract:
Anemone shikokiana (Makino) Makino, which has important research values, is a rare plant. The species has two different habitats, the shrubs in mountaintop and understorey of the conifer and broad-leaf mixed forest. Karyotype is very important for the other researches of a plant. The chromosome numbers and karyotype of A. shikokiana were firstly studied using a traditional squash method and Leven’s karyotype analysis standard. The results showed that the karyotype of metaphase chromosomes in somatic cells is as follows: the number of chromosomes is 14, karyotypic formula is 2n = 2X = 14 = 12m + 2t, the A.S.K% is 56.5%, and the relative length of chromosome is 2n = 2X = 14 = 12L + 2M1. For exploring the influences of habitats on chromosomal variation, the morphology of chromosomes was analysed by nested analysis. The results showed that chromosomal variation is not evident between populations in different habitats, but obvious within the same population. So we think that chromosomal variation of A. shikokiana presents in the small scope, and chromosomal variation in large scale may cancel each other out because of enough large scale. This study will provide the basis and reference for future work on A. shikokiana.

文章引用: 王 鸷 , 逄玉娟 , 刘传林 , 庄树宏 , 卞福花 (2013) 稀有植物山东银莲花(Anemone shikokiana (Makino) Makino)的核型分析及其生境对染色体变异的影响。 植物学研究, 2, 113-116. doi: 10.12677/BR.2013.25020

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