SNARC效应形成机制的研究进展
Advances in Formation Mechanism of the SNARC Effect

作者: 韩雅倩 , 程晓荣 , 定险峰 , 范 炤 :青少年网络心理与行为教育部重点实验室,武汉;华中师范大学心理学院,武汉;

关键词: SNARC效应阅读与书写习惯具身认知工作记忆The SNARC Effect Reading and Writing Habits Embodied Cognition Working Memory

摘要: “空数字的反应编码联合效应(Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes, 简称SNARC效应)是指在数字判断任务中,被试按左侧键对小数的反应快于按右侧键对小数的反应,而按右侧键对大数的反应要快于按左侧键对大数的反应。SNARC效应自Dehaene(1993)发现以来,虽已有大量证据证明其普遍存在性,但其仍存在很大的灵活性。本文主要从阅读与书写习惯、具身认知以及工作记忆三个方面对SNARC效应的形成机制进行了简单回顾,但其可能都不是SNARC效应产生的本质,SNARC效应有可能只是SQUARC (Spatial-Quantity Association of Response Codes)效应的一个特例

Abstract: Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC) effect specifically relates small magnitudes to the left hand side and larger magnitudes to the right hand side. Since Dehaene (1993) found the SNARC effect, there are a large number of evidences about its universality, but the SNARC effect is very unstable. The paper is mainly from three aspects to state the formation mechanism of the SNARC effect, which are reading and writing habits, embodied cognition and working memory. However, all of these may be not the nature of the SNARC effect. The SNARC effect is only a special case of the SQUARC (Spatial-Quantity Association of Response Codes) effect.

文章引用: 韩雅倩 , 程晓荣 , 定险峰 , 范 炤 (2013) SNARC效应形成机制的研究进展。 心理学进展, 3, 346-351. doi: 10.12677/AP.2013.36052

参考文献

[1] 定险峰, 靖桂芳, & 徐成 (2010). SNARC 效应起源的实验研究. 心理科学, 5期, 1258-1261.

[2] 高在峰, 水仁德, 陈晶, 陈雯, 田瑛, 沈模卫(2009). 负数的空间表征机制. 心理学报, 2期, 95-102.

[3] 顾艳艳, 张志杰(2012). 汉语背景下横纵轴上的心理时间线. 心理学报, 8期, 1015-1024.

[4] 叶浩生(2010). 具身认知:认知心理学的新取向. 心理科学进展, 5期, 705-710.

[5] 张丽, 陈雪梅, 王琦, 李红(2012). 身体形式和社会环境对 SNARC 效应的影响:基于具身认知观的理解. 心理学报, 10期, 1309- 1317.

[6] 张宇, 游旭群(2012). 负数的空间表征引起的空间注意转移. 心理学报, 3期, 285-294.

[7] Bächtold, D., Baumüller, M., & Brugger, P. (1998). Stimulus-response compatibility in representational space. Neuropsychologia, 36, 731- 735.

[8] Baddeley, A. (1992). Working memory. Science, 255(5044), 556-559.

[9] Boroditsky, L., Fuhrman, O., & McCormick, K. (2011). Do English and Mandarin speakers think about time differently? Cognition, 118, 123-129.

[10] Crollen, V., Dormal, G., Seron, X., Lepore, F., & Collignon, O. (2011). Embodied numbers: The role of vision in the development of number-space interactions. Cortex, 11, 1-8.

[11] Dehaene, S., Bossini, S., & Giraux, P. (1993). The mental representation of parity and number magnitude. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 122, 371-396.

[12] Dehaene, S., Dupoux, E., & Mehler, J. (1990). Is numerical comparison digital? Analogical and symbolic effects in two-digit number comparison. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 16, 626-641.

[13] Eerland, A., Guadalupe, T. M., & Zwaan, R. A. (2011). Leaning to the left makes the eiffel tower seem smaller. Psychological Science, 22, 1511-1514.

[14] Fischer, M. H. (2012). A hierarchical view of grounded, embodied, and situated numerical cognition. Cognitive Processing, 13, S161-S164.

[15] Fischer, M. H. (2006). The future for snarc could be stark…. Cortex, 42, 1066-1068.

[16] Fischer, M. H. (2008). Finger counting habits modulate spatial-nu- merical associations. Cortex, 44, 386-392.

[17] Fischer, M. H., & Brugger, P. (2011). When digits help digits: Spatial- numerical associations point to finger counting as prime example of embodied cognition. Frontiers in psychology, 2, 261-267.

[18] Fischer, M. H., Castel, A. D., Dodd, M. D., & Pratt, J. (2003). Perceiving numbers causes spatial shifts of attention. Nature Neuroscience, 6, 555-556.

[19] Fischer, M. H., Mills, R. A., & Shaki, S. (2010). How to cook a SNARC: Number placement in text rapidly changes spatial-nu- merical associations. Brain and Cognition, 72, 333-336.

[20] Fischer, M. H., Shaki, S., & Cruise, A. (2009). It takes just one word to quash a SNARC. Experimental Psychology, 56(5), 361-366.

[21] Galton, F. (1880). Visualised numerals. Nature, 21, 252-256.

[22] Ganor-Stern, D., Tzelgov, J., & Ellenbogen, R. (2007). Automaticity and two-digit numbers. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 33, 483-496.

[23] Gevers, W., & Lammertyn, J. (2005). The hunt for SNARC. Psychology Science, 47, 10-21.

[24] Herrera, A., Macizo, P., & Semenza, C. (2008). The role of working memory in the association between number magnitude and space. Acta Psychologica, 128, 225-237.

[25] Hung, Y., Hung, D. L., Tzeng, O. J. L., & Wu, D. H. (2008). Flexible spatial mapping of different notations of numbers in Chinese readers. Cognition, 106, 1441-1450.

[26] Ishihara, M., Keller, P. E., Rossetti, Y., & Prinz, W. (2008). Horizontal spatial representations of time: Evidence for the STEARC effect. Cortex, 44, 454-461.

[27] Kirjakovski, A., & Utsuki, N. (2012). From SNARC to SQUARC: Universal mental quantity line? International Journal of Psychological Studies, 4, 217-228.

[28] Lindemann, O., Abolafia, J. M., Pratt, J., & Bekkering, H. (2008). Coding strategies in number space: Memory requirements influence spatial-numerical associations. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61, 515-524.

[29] Lindemann, O., Alipour, A., & Fischer, M. H. (2011). Finger counting habits in Middle Eastern and Western individuals: an online survey. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42, 566-578.

[30] Loetscher, T., Schwarz, U., Schubiger, M., & Brugger, P. (2008). Head turns bias the brain’s internal random generator. Current Biology, 18, R60-R62.

[31] Opfer, J. E., & Furlong, E. E. (2011). How numbers bias preschoolers’ spatial search. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42, 682-695.

[32] Ouellet, M., Santiago, J., Israeli, Z., & Gabay, S. (2010). Is the future the right time? Experimental Psychology, 57, 308-314.

[33] Riello, M., & Rusconi, E. (2011). Unimanual SNARC Effect: Hand matters. Frontiers in Psychology, 2, 372-382.

[34] Rugani, R., Kelly, D. M., Szelest, I., Regolin, L., & Vallortigara, G. (2010). Is it only humans that count from left to right? Biology Letters, 6, 290-292.

[35] Rugani, R., Vallortigara, G., Vallini, B., & Regolin, L. (2011). Asymmetrical number-space mapping in the avian brain. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 95, 231-238.

[36] Rusconi, E., Kwan, B., Giordano, B. L., Umilta, C., & Butterworth, B. (2006). Spatial representation of pitch height: The SMARC effect. Cognition, 99, 113-129.

[37] Salillas, E., El Yagoubi, R., & Semenza, C. (2008). Sensory and cognitive processes of shifts of spatial attention induced by numbers: An ERP study. Cortex, 44, 406-413.

[38] Sato, M., & Lalain, M. (2008). On the relationship between handedness and hand-digit mapping in finger counting. Cortex, 44, 393- 399.

[39] Shaki, S., & Fischer, M. H. (2008). Reading space into numbers—A cross-linguistic comparison of the SNARC effect. Cognition, 108, 590-599.

[40] Shaki, S., & Fischer, M. H. (2012). Multiple spatial mappings in numerical cognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38, 804-811.

[41] Shaki, S., Fischer, M. H., & Petrusic, W. M. (2009). Reading habits for both words and numbers contribute to the SNARC effect. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16, 328-331.

[42] Shaki, S., & Petrusic, W. M. (2005). On the mental representation of negative numbers: Context-dependent SNARC effects with comparative judgments. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12, 931-937.

[43] Tschentscher, N., Hauk, O., Fischer, M. H., & Pulvermüller, F. (2011). You can count on the motor cortex: Finger counting habits modulate motor cortex activation evoked by numbers. NeuroImage, 59, 3139- 3148.

[44] Tzelgov, J., Ganor-Stern, D., & Maymon-Schreiber, K. (2009). The representation of negative numbers: Exploring the effects of mode of processing and notation. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 605-624.

[45] Vallesi, A., McIntosh, A. R., & Stuss, D. T. (2011). How time modulates spatial responses. Cortex, 47, 148-179.

[46] van Dijck, J. P., & Fias, W. (2011). A working memory account for spa- tial-numerical associations. Cognition, 119, 114-119.

[47] Van Dijck, J. P., Gevers, W., & Fias, W. (2009). Numbers are associated with different types of spatial information depending on the task. Cognition, 113, 248-253.

[48] Wood, G., Willmes, K., Nuerk, H. C., & Fischer, M. H. (2008). On the cognitive link between space and number: A meta-analysis of the SNARC effect. Psychology Science, 50, 489-525.

[49] Zebian, S. (2005). Linkages between number concepts, spatial thinking, and directionality of writing: The SNARC effect and the reverse SNARC effect in English and Arabic monoliterates, biliterates, and illiterate Arabic speakers. Journal of Cognition and Culture, 5, 165- 190.

分享
Top