死亡凸显效应综述:知死而后生
A Summary of the Mortality Salience Effect: A Theory against Death

作者: 易雪梅 , 张庆林 :西南大学心理学部认知与人格教育部重点实验室,重庆; 李 红 :辽宁师范大学心理发展与教育研究中心,大连;

关键词: 死亡凸显效应世界观防御自尊寻求恐惧管理理论Mortality Salience Effect Worldview Defense Self-Esteem Striving Terror Management Theory

摘要: 死亡凸显效(Mortality Salience Effect)是恐惧管理理论最重要的假设之一,指个体在死亡凸显后出现的世界观防御、自尊寻求等一系列心理防御现象,目前该领域的研究主要以探讨死亡凸显对个体行为的影响为主。本文通过梳理死亡凸显效应的相关理论和实证研究,对其理论来源、基本观点、效应独特性及恐惧管理策略进行了综述。由于受文化、宗教、个人特质等因素影响明显,使得实验室的死亡问题研究长期以来都受到信度和效度不足的诟病。因此,在借鉴前人研究的基础上,未来研究可考虑从以下几点进行再探讨:1) 变量控制上,注重区分死亡凸显和其他威胁性刺激效应的不同;2) 技术方法上,有效利用ERPfMRI等技术考察死亡凸显效应的神经心理机制;3) 借鉴中国文化生死观开展死亡凸显效应的本土化研究。

Abstract: Mortality salience effect refers to psychological defense systems as the wordview defense/ self-esteem. In this paper, major viewpoints, strategies and researches are illuminated. However, complicated factors as culture and characteristics, make laboratory studies criticized by insufficient reliability and validity. Future research can lay emphasis on the following aspects: 1) on variable control, pay attention to distinguish death reminder and other threatening stimulus; 2) on technical approach, utilize ERP and fMRI effectively to investigate neuropsychological mechanism of mortality salience effect; 3) on research orientation, consult Chinese life-death to launch indigenous research.

文章引用: 易雪梅 , 李 红 , 张庆林 (2013) 死亡凸显效应综述:知死而后生。 心理学进展, 3, 327-333. doi: 10.12677/AP.2013.36049

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