An Introduction to Critical Incident Stress Management
作者: 杜建政 ：广州大学心理学系;危急事件应激管理是一种综合的危机干预模式，由Everly和Mitchell在20世纪90年代提出，包括缓解紧张、危急事件应激晤谈、家庭支持等一系列危急事件干预技术，用以降低创伤事件导致的心理障碍的发生率、持久性和损害程度。本文简要介绍了危急事件应激管理的各项技术，对其中的危急事件应激晤谈进行了分析，并介绍了近几年来与之有关的实证研究及其可能的发展前景。
Abstract: Critical incident stress management (CISM) is introduced by Everly and Mitchell in the 1990s. It usually includes defusing, critical incidents stress debriefing (CISD), family support, and intervention techniques of other critical incidents, with the goal of reducing the incidence, duration, the extent of damage from the traumatic incidents. This article describes the techniques of critical incident stress management, especially the critical incidents stress debriefing in detail. The author also presents some empirical researches in this area in recent years and depicts the possible future of critical incident stress management.
文章引用: 杜建政 (2013) 危急事件应激管理评介。 心理学进展， 3， 21-26. doi: 10.12677/AP.2013.36A004
 Adler, A. B., Litz, B. T., Castro, C. A., Suvak, M., Thomas, J. L., Burrell, L., et al. (2008). A group randomized trial of critical incident stress debriefing provided to US peacekeepers. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 21, 253-263.
 Bhrett, M., & Edwin, D. B. (2000). Critical incident stress management:Ⅱ. Developing a team. Psychiatric Service, 51, 1499-1500.
 Blain, D., Hoch, P., & Ryan, V. G. (1945). A course in psychological first aid and prevention: A preliminary report. American Journal of Psychiatry, 101, 629-634.
 Brown, L., Shiang, J., & Bongar, B. (2003). Crisis intervention. In I. B. Weiner, (Series Ed.), G. Stricker, & T. A. Widiger, (Vol. Eds.). Handbook of Psychology: Vol. 8. Clinical Psychology (pp. 431-451). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
 Conlon, L., Fahy, T. J., & Conroy, R. (1999). PTSD in ambulant RTA victims: A randomized controlled trial of debrieﬁng. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 46, 37-44.
 Dignam, J., & Fagan, T. J. (1996). Workplace violence in correctional settings: A comprehensive approach to critical incident stress management. In G. R. Vanden Bos, & E. Q. Bulatao, Eds., Violence on the Job: Identifying Risks and Developing Solutions (pp. 367-384). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
 Edwin, D. B., & Bhrett, M. (2000). Critical incident stress management: I. Developing a team. Psychiatric Service, 51, 1095-1097.
 Everly Jr., G. S., & Mitchell, J. T. (1995). Prevention of work-related posttraumatic stress: The critical incident stress debriefing process. In L. R. Murphy, J. J. Hurrell, Jr., S. L. Sauter, & G. P. Keita, Eds., Job Stress Interventions (pp. 173-183). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
 Frattaroli, J. (2006). Experimental disclosure and its moderators: A meta-analysis. Psychology Bulletin, 132, 823-865.
 Grant, J. D., Richard, G., & Peter, C. (2006). Ready! Fire! Aim! The status of psychological debriefing and therapeutic interventions: In the work place and after disasters. Review of General Psychology, 10, 318-345.
 Hans, T. (2002). Stress in policing (pp. 179-195). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
 Harrist, S., Carlozzi, B. L., Mcgovern, A. R., & Harrist, A. W. (2007). Benefits of expressive writing and expressive talking about life goals. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 923-930.
 John, C. L. (1995). Acute stress management with public safety personnel: Opportunities for clinical training and pro bono community service. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 26, 566- 573.
 Kraft, C. A., Lumley, M. A., D’souza, P. J., & Dooley, J. A. (2008). Emotional approach coping and self-efficacy moderate the effects of written emotional disclosure and relaxation training for people with migraine headaches. British Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 67- 71.
 Leonard, R., & Alison, L. (1999). Critical incident stress debriefing and its effects on coping strategies and anger in a sample of Australian police officers involved in shooting incidents. Work and Stress, 13, 144-161.
 McEvoy, M. (2005). Psychological first aid: Replacement for critical incident stress debriefing? Fire Engineering, 63-66.
 McNally, R. J., Bryant, R. J., & Ehlers, A. (2003). Does early psychological intervention promote recovery from posttraumatic stress? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4, 45-79.
 McNally, V. J., & Solomon, R. M. (1999). The FBI’s critical incident stress management program. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 20-26.
 Morrison, J. O. (2007). Social validity of the critical incident stress management model for school-based crisis intervention. Psychology in the Schools, 44, 765-777.
 Pennebaker, J. W. & Beall, S. K. (1986). Confronting a traumatic event: Toward an understanding of inhibition and disease. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95, 274-281.
 Root, D. A., & Ziska, M. D. (1996). Violence prevention during corporate downsizing: The use of a people team as context for the critical incident team. In G. R. VandenBos, & E. Q. Bulatao, Eds., Violence on the Job: Identifying Risks and Developing Solutions (pp. 353-365). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
 Rose, S., Brewin, C. R., Andrews, B., & Kirk, M. (1999). A randomized controlled trial of individual psychological debrieﬁng for victims of violent crime. Psychological Medicine, 29, 793-799.
 Sloan, D. M., Marx, B. P., & Epstein, E. M. (2005). Further examination of the exposure model underlying the efficacy of written emotional disclosure. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 549-554.
 Vernberg, E. M., Steinberg, A. M., Jacobs, A. K., Brymer, M. J., Watson, P. J., Osofsky, J. D., et al. (2008). Inno-vations in disaster mental health: Psychological first aid. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 39, 381-388.