中国城市水资源战略的国际比较研究
An International Comparison of China’s Urban Water Resource Strategies

作者: 宋 宁 * , 马恒运 :河南农业大学经济与管理学院; 田明华 :北京林业大学经济与管理学院;

关键词: 城市水资源雨水中水财税政策Urban Water Resource Rainwater Recycled Water Fiscal and Taxation Policy

摘要: 水是人类赖以生存和发展最基础的自然资源,然而随着社会经济的快速发展,目前国际上水资源短缺问题日益严重。而且由于城市用水量和污染排放量急剧增加,城市水资源面临严峻挑战。文章从平衡水资源供给、节水措施和法规政策等方面,介绍了国内外城市水资源管理和利用战略,通过比较分析国内外城市水资源战略差别,找出中国水资源管理存在的问题是:国民节水意识不足,城市水管理理论研究滞后,相关法律法规和技术规范薄弱,城市地下排水系统落后等。同时,对中国城市水资源战略提出建议:加强节水教育,推广节水器具,建立节水型社会;引导水资源管理理论和技术创新;完善法律法规和具体技术规范;鼓励废水处理后用于农业灌溉;重建城市地下排水系统。

Abstract: Water is the most fundamental resource that human survival and social development must rely on. At present, the global water resource shortage is increasingly serious along with the rapid development of social economy. Because of the rising water consumption and increasing pollution, the urban water resource is also faced with severe challenges. This paper first introduces the strategies of urban water resource management and utilization home and overseas from the following three aspects: the water resource supply-demand balance, water saving measures, and the relevant laws and policies. After the analysis and comparison of global urban water resource strategies, the paper has then identified the existing issues of urban water resource management in China. They are: 1) weak citizen water saving conscious; 2) the lagged theory research on urban water management; 3) insufficient laws and technical regulations; 4) weak urban underground drainage system. Finally, the paper proposes some policy suggestions for China’s urban water resource strategies: 1) carry out water-saving education and vigorously promote the water-saving appliances to establish a water-saving society; 2) enhance the theory study and technology innovation in water resource management; 3) perfect the laws and the specific technical regulations; 4) encourage the treated wastewater used in agricultural irrigation; 5) reconstruct the urban underground drainage system.

文章引用: 宋 宁 , 田明华 , 马恒运 (2013) 中国城市水资源战略的国际比较研究。 水资源研究, 2, 260-269. doi: 10.12677/JWRR.2013.24037

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