北京地区富士苹果优质丰产的土壤养分比例优化方案研究
Research of Optimum Proposal of Soil Nutrient Ratio for Good Fruit Qualities and Plentiful Yield in “Fuji” Apple of Beijing Region

作者: 张 强 , 魏钦平 , 刘松忠 , 孙 健 , 刘 军 :北京市农林科学院林业果树研究所;

关键词: 富士苹果土壤养分比例果实品质多元分析优化方案“Fuji” Apple Soil Nutrient Ratio Fruit Qualities Multivariate Analysis Optimum Proposal

摘要:

为了探讨影响富士苹果品质的主要土壤养分比例因子和获取果品优质的土壤养分比例优化方案,为苹果园合理施肥、提高肥料利用效率等提供理论依据,连续两年对北京地区苹果园的土壤养分含量和富士果实品质进行调查分析,分别计算土壤矿质元素间的18种比例,应用典型相关分析和线性规划等方法,筛选影响果实品质因素的主要土壤养分比例因子,求解富士苹果优质的土壤养分比例优化方案。结果表明,苹果园间的土壤养分比例差异较大,其中碱解N/有效K、碱解N/有效Fe、碱解N/有效Zn、有效K/有效Zn、有效Ca/有效Zn的最大值是最小值的7.957.6010.5818.7613.47倍。典型相关和回归分析获得了碱解N/有效P、有效P/有效Ca与果实单果质量呈正相关,而碱解N/有效Ca与之呈负相关;碱解N/有效Ca、碱解N/有效K与果实硬度呈负相关;碱解N/有效Fe对果实可溶性固形物含量影响最大,并与之呈负相关,而有效K/有效Fe与之呈正相关。线性规划求解出富士苹果优质的土壤养分比例优化方案为:碱解N/有效P1.9、碱解N/有效K0.18、碱解N/有效Ca0.02~0.115、碱解N/有效Fe1.6、碱解N/有效Zn4.0~55、碱解N/有效B80~420、有效P/有效K0.4、有效P/有效Ca0.028~0.22、有效P/有效Fe3~30、有效P/有效Zn9~80、有效P/有效B600、有效K/有效Ca280、有效K/有效Fe5.6~33、有效K/有效Zn125、有效K/有效B125~980、有效Ca/有效Fe500、有效Ca/有效Zn120和有效Ca/有效B1300~11,500时,其果实品质指标的理论优化结果为:单果质量442.06 g、果实硬度11.87 kg/cm2、可溶性固形物含量29.37%、可滴定酸含量0.51%。综合以上结果,降低土壤碱解N、提高有效K、稳定土壤有效Fe 含量是提高果实可溶性固形物含量的关键。

Abstract: The objective of this study was to find out the major soil nutrient ratio factors affecting fruit quail- ties, and to obtain the optimum proposal of soil nutrient ratio for good fruit qualities. It will provide basis data for growers in making rational application and increasing utilization ratio of fertilizer in “Fuji” apple tree. The investigation and analysis were carried out on soil nutrient and fruit qualities in apple orchards of Beijing region from 2008 to 2009, 18 kinds of proportion between soil mineral elements were calculated, methods of canonical correlation analysis and linear program were used to screen major soil nutrient ratio factors affect- ing fruit qualities and to solve the optimum proposal of soil nutrient

Abstract: ratio for good fruit qualities and plentiful yield in “Fuji” apple. The results showed that soil nutrient ratios vary among different apple orchards, where- in the maximum value of alkaline hydrolysable N/available P, alkaline hydrolysable N/available K, alkaline hydrolysable N/available Zn, available K/Zn and available Ca/Zn was worth 7.95, 7.60, 10.58, 18.76 and 13.47 times the minimum value respectively. Canonical correlation and regression analysis obtained that both alkaline hydrolysable N/available P and available P/Ca were positively correlated with fruit mass, while alka- line hydrolysable N/available Ca was negatively correlated with it; both alkaline hydrolysable N/available Ca and alkaline hydrolysable N/available K were negatively correlated with firmness; alkaline hydrolysable N/available Fe had the greatest effect on fruit soluble solids content, and was negatively correlated with it, while available K/Fe was positively correlated with it. The optimum proposals of soil nutrient element ratio for good apple quality were alkaline hydrolysable N/available P 1.9, alkaline hydrolysable N/available K 0.18, alkaline hydrolysable N/available Ca 0.02 - 0.115, alkaline hydrolysable N/available Fe 1.6, alkaline hydro- lysable N/available Zn 4.0 - 55, alkaline hydrolysable N/available B 80 - 420, available P/K 0.4, available P/Ca 0.028 - 0.22, available P/Fe 3 - 30, available P/Zn 9 - 80, available P/B 600, available K/Ca 280, avail- able K/Fe 5.6 - 33, available K/Zn 125, available K/B 125 - 980,available Ca/Fe 500, available Ca/Zn 120 and available Ca/B 1300 - 11,500. Under this optimum proposal for soil nutrient ratio, the target of fruit qualities of 442.06 gmass,13.87 kg/cm2 firmness, 29.37% soluble solids, 0.51% titratable acid will be achieved theoretically. Taken together, it is the key to improve fruit soluble solids content by reducing soil alkaline hydrolysable N, increasing available K and stable available Fe.



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Abstract:

文章引用: 张 强 , 魏钦平 , 刘松忠 , 孙 健 , 刘 军 (2013) 北京地区富士苹果优质丰产的土壤养分比例优化方案研究。 农业科学, 3, 56-63. doi: 10.12677/HJAS.2013.33013

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