应用物理

Vol.2 No.4 (October 2012)

用归一化的光子态矢函数描述孪生双光子思想实验
Description of Twin Two-Photon Thought Experiment with Normalized Photonic State-Vector Function

 

作者:

姚志欣 :浙江大学物理系

 

关键词:

纠缠态光子态矢函数孪生双光子EPR佯谬Entanglement Twin Photons Photonic State-Vector Function EPR Paradox

 

摘要:

根据Born对归一化波函数的概率解释,从量子力学的观点重新审视孪生双光子思想实验,着眼的对象不再是这对孪生光子本身,而是一群具有共同属性的光子集合。所有这些光子具有完全相同的能量和角动量特征,但是在动量的相反方向却具有相等的概率;或者说这是一群在相反动量方向具有相等的数量、而所有其它量子特征完全相同的光子集合。仿效先前对光学双孔效应进行量子力学分析的步骤,具体构造出描述孪生双光子思想实验总的归一化光子态矢函数,所描述的并不是两个光子之间的纠缠,而是单个光子的概率,从而得到光子的空间分布函数。当光子的总数达到形成完整图像的统计学要求时,宏观上将显示出明暗间隔的条纹。在追溯纠缠态历史渊源的基础上,返璞归真孪生双光子思想实验的量子力学观点,对所谓的EPR佯谬引发出来的双光子纠缠态作出了新的解释,提出了量子信息的新认识。

Based on Born’s statistical interpretation for the normalized wave function, the twin two-photon thought experiment is reexamined from point of view of quantum mechanics. The emphasis is no longer the pair of twin photons itself, but rather a group of photons with common attributes. All the photons have the characteristics of identical energy and angular momentum, but possess same probability in the opposite direction of momentum, that is to say, this is a group of photon collections, which have the same number in the opposite direction of momentum, while all other quantum characteristics are identical. Following the example of the previous procedure dealing with optical two-hole effect by use of quantum mechanics, the total normalized photonic state-vector function that described the twin two-photon thought experiment has been specifically constructed, which does not describe the entangled behavior of the two photons, but the probability of a single photon, and thus deduces the probability distribution of a photon in the space. When the total number of photons satisfies the statistical requirements to form a complete picture, some fringes of light and dark interval will be displayed. On the basis of retrospective historical origins of entanglement, the point of view of quantum mechanics about the twin two-photon thought experiment was reverted. The so-called EPR paradox, and the entangled two-photon state have been re-interpreted, and a new understanding of quantum information has been put forward.

 


文章引用:

姚志欣 (2012) 用归一化的光子态矢函数描述孪生双光子思想实验。 应用物理, 2, 121-133. doi: 10.12677/APP.2012.24021

 

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