机械工程与技术

Vol.7 No.1 (February 2018)

基于CFD仿真和当量温度的某动车司机室气候舒适性评价研究
Research on Climate Comfort Evaluation of a EMU Train Cab Based on CFD Simulation and Equivalent Temperature

 

作者:

王广彬 , 任金东 , 刘群 :吉林大学汽车工程学院,吉林 长春

 

关键词:

动车司机室热舒适性当量温度EMU Train’s Driver Compartment Thermal Comfort Equivalent Temperature

 

摘要:

动车司机室内微气候热舒适性是设计初期需要考虑的重要内容,在设计前期就需要预测采暖、通风和空调(HVAC)系统对司机气候舒适性的影响。利用仿真进行前期分析具有成本低、方案修改方便、能分析出许多实验得不到的参数的优点。本文建立了某动车司机室有限元模型,利用CFD数值仿真的方法对冬季和夏季两种工况下司机室内的空气速度场和温度场进行了仿真。由于行内标准UIC651只规定了头部和小腿下方气温和气流速度的范围,对于人体详细部位的热舒适性评价无能为力,本文综合UIC标准和采用当量温度计算的方法对该动车司机室微气候进行了分析,并尝试利用Nilsson舒适度模型结合当量温度对人体舒适度进行了分析评价。结果表明,该司机室的设计能够满足司机的气候舒适性要求;此外,Nilsson舒适模型对室内热舒适性头部和小腿下方的要求与UIC651标准是一致的,但能够评价更多身体部位的热舒适性。本文的数值模拟计算和气候舒适性评价方法结果可为轨道车辆司机室布置和HVAC系统的设计分析提供参考。

The indoor microclimate comfort of EMU train driver compartment is an important concern in the early stage of design, and the influence of the HVAC system on climate comfort should be predicted. By using simulative analyses early in design, it is relatively convenient to modify the design with lower cost, and can acquire many parameters which can't be acquired by tests. In this paper, the finite element model of an EMU train driver compartment was established, and the distribution of the indoor temperature and air-flow speed were simulated for both summer and winter conditions. Since only the comfort ranges of temperature and air-flow speed near the head and below calf regions were prescribed in the UIC651 standard, which was unable to be used to evaluate the climate comfort of detailed body parts of human body. For this reason, the equivalent temperatures of human body parts were calculated, and were used to evaluate the climate comfort of driver human body by comparing with the Nilsson comfort model. The above analyses showed that the layout and the HVAC design of the EMU train compartment met the requirement of climate comfort of driver. The results also showed good consistency of Nilsson model with the UIC651 standard in evaluating head and body parts below calf, while the model could be adopted to evaluate more parts of human body. The simulative calculation and the evaluation methods of the climate comfort presented in this paper provide good references for the design and analysis of driver compartment layout and the design of HVAC system.

文章引用:

王广彬 , 任金东 , 刘群 (2018) 基于CFD仿真和当量温度的某动车司机室气候舒适性评价研究。 机械工程与技术, 7, 29-37. doi: 10.12677/MET.2018.71004

 

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