现代管理

Vol.1 No.3 (September 2011)

中国二元结构的演化及特点
The Evolution and Characteristics of China’s Dual Economic Structure

 

作者:

郭锦川 , 李琼

 

关键词:

二元经济结构第三产业就业结构城市化Dual Economic Structure the Tertiary Industry Employment Structure Urbanization

 

摘要:

我国二元经济结构最早可以追溯到19 世纪中叶。1949 年建国后,由于选择了重工业优先发展的赶超型发展战略,二元经济结构进一步加强。1978 年以来的经济改革首先在微观个体进行,农业和农村改革的成功,缩小了工农之间、城乡之间的二元差异,1978~1984 为二元结构的减弱期。1985年开启了城市改革,随之城市经济高速增长,但农业增长放缓,二元经济结构再次加强。无论是从农业与非农业比较劳动生产率还是从二元对比系数来看,我国二元经济结构强度虽有所缓和,但十分缓慢。由于第三产业发展滞后影响了中国就业结构的转换,而城市化滞后导致城乡差距进一步扩大,因此,要进一步推进中国的二元经济结构转换必需加速城市化发展进程,以带动第三产业的发展,促进农村剩余劳动力向非农产业转移。

China’s dual economic structure, dating back to the mid-19th century, was strengthened after the foundation of People’s Republic of China owing to the adoption of the catching-up and surpassing strategies,which gave priority to heavy industry development. In 1978, the economic reforms was initiated in micro-economic units and the success in agricultural and rural reforms reduced the discrepancy between workers and farmers as well as the urban and rural areas, so the dual economic structure had been weakened during the period of 1978 to 1984. Since 1985 the cities’ economy had grown rapidly with the reform beginning in cities. However, the agricultural growth slowed down, which once again led to the strengthening of the dual economic structure. From then on whether it is from the view of the agriculture and non-agricultural comparative productivity or from the dual contrast coefficient, China’s dual economic structure has been eased, but very slowly. On one hand, the relatively slow development of the tertiary industry has affected the conversion of the employment structure. On the other hand, the urbanization lags behind the economic growth, which enlarges the difference between the urban and rural areas. Therefore, in order to promote the transformation of China's dual economy it is essential to accelerate urbanization, for it can spur the development of the tertiary industry as well as the transfer of the surplus agricultural labor force to non-farm jobs.

文章引用:

郭锦川 , 李琼 (2011) 中国二元结构的演化及特点。 现代管理, 1, 110-115. doi: 10.12677/mm.2011.13020

 

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