心理学进展

Vol.6 No.7 (July 2016)

“无烟儿童”:原理、效果及其应用前景
“The Smoke-Free Kids”: Principle, Effect, and Application Prospects

 

作者:

臧福运 , 冯永辉 :湖南师范大学教育科学学院,湖南 长沙

 

关键词:

“无烟儿童”吸烟家庭干预“The Smoke-Free Kids” Smoking Home-Based Intervention

 

摘要:

“无烟儿童”是在欧美流行的以儿童和母亲为目标的基于家庭的吸烟干预项目。项目以社会认知理论、详尽可能性模型和计划行为理论为原理,以模块化和自我帮助的方式通过亲子间的互动来影响儿童关于吸烟的认知和行为规范的发展。通过随机对照试验验证项目在推迟儿童开始吸烟的时间和减少吸烟率方面有显著效果。由于方案具有心理学理论驱动、操作简单、可由家庭独立完成、侧重儿童、效果显著等优点,方案在与基于学校的方案结合使用、以更便捷的方式在更大的人口水平上实施、运用到其他成瘾品的干预预防等方面具有应用潜力。方案可能存在选择偏倚、天花板效应,以及缺乏跨文化研究、未考虑父亲因素等局限性,因此尚需研究来进一步完善。结合“无烟儿童”和我国现状,我国在吸烟干预研究中存在干预性研究少、实证研究少、具体化操作策略少、心理学领域研究少等不足。在未来控烟工作中,应将心理学理论运用于控烟工作,将儿童纳入禁烟目标,完善控烟立法,尤其是出台针对儿童和家庭的相关立法。

“The Smoke-Free Kids” is a home-based smoking prevention program, which is popular in Europe and America. It targeted kids and their mothers. The program is constructed based on the Social Cognitive Theory, the Elaboration Likelihood Model and the Theory of Planned Behavior. The program has an impact on the development of children’s cognitive and behavioral norms regarding smoking through interaction between parents and children in a modular and self-help format. Randomized controlled trials significantly delay the time that children start smoking, and also reduce children’s smoking frequency. The program has many advantages, such as theory-driven psychology, easy operation, focusing on children, significant effect, and so on. Moreover, it could be applied in multiple ways, such as combing school-based program, implementing on a large pop-ulation conveniently, and facilitating the intervention effect of other anti-addictive products. Nev-ertheless, the selection bias and the ceiling effect might exist in the program. The lack of cross- cultural studies and the failure to include father effects suggest that further improvements are needed in future studies. Considering “The Smoke-Free Kids” program and the domestic conditions, the smoking intervention researches in China have some limitations, such as limited number of intervention studies, empirical research, concrete action policy, and research in the field of psychology. In the future, the psychology should be applied to the prevention of smoking. The children should be targeted in ban on smoking, and legislation concerning smoking should be im-proved, especially for children and families.

文章引用:

臧福运 , 冯永辉 (2016) “无烟儿童”:原理、效果及其应用前景。 心理学进展, 6, 808-819. doi: 10.12677/AP.2016.67105

 

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