心理学进展

Vol.6 No.5 (May 2016)

具身效应发生在情绪认知加工过程的早期
Embodied Effect Occurs in the Early Phase of Emotional Cognitive Processes

 

作者:

毕 新 :苏州大学,江苏 苏州

杨智钦 :西交利物浦大学,江苏 苏州

 

关键词:

情绪STROOP任务具身模拟具身效应时间压力Emotional STROOP Task Embodied Simulation Embodied Effect Time Pressure

 

摘要:

情绪的理解过程中需要具身模仿参与,同时外周身体运动也可以激活对于情绪的感知。本研究采用积极、消极和中性情绪效价词汇作为刺激材料,采用情绪STROOP任务(如果被试接收并加工了某种特定的情绪,会占用一定的认知资源,这将导致随后的颜色命名反应变慢,这种干扰效应被称为情绪STROOP效应),通过递进的两个实验,在刺激呈现不同时间条件下,采用情绪STROOP范式的色块颜色判断任务,探索情绪认知加工过程中具身认知参与随时间变化的特点和机制。实验一结果发现:1) 在刺激呈现10 ms到500 ms的时间段内,情绪STROOP效应一直存在;2) 在10 ms到100 ms的刺激呈现时间内,情绪STROOP效应量呈线性增长趋势,但是在100 ms后,出现急剧的下降;实验二在实验一的基础上加入具身介入操作以增强或抑制被试对于情绪的理解,结果进一步验证实验一中情绪STROOP效应量在100 ms以后的急剧下降是由具身模拟对于情绪认知加工的影响消失所致。结果表明,利用身体作为工具帮助我们有效理解情绪是认知系统的一个策略,但此策略有一个时间上的压力。具身认知启动速度快,但如果由于某些原因,具身认知不能帮助我们完成情绪理解,抽象思维还可以保证我们的情绪理解。这项研究发现了利用身体去帮助我们理解情绪的具身效应出现在早期的认知加工过程中。

Research shows that the process of understanding the emotions involves embodied simulation. The outer periphery of the body movement can activate the emotional perception. In this study, emotional words with positive, negative and neutral valence are used as stimulations. The emo-tional STROOP task is employed in this study, if a specific emotion has been received and processed by the participants; this would occupy a certain of cognition resources and thus make the following color naming test slower. This interference effect is called emotional STROOP effect. Through two organized experiments with different stimulus presentation time and emotional STROOP tasks, it has been explored that how embodied cognition affects the emotional cognitive processing in time-varying situations. Experiment one finds that: 1) when stimulus presents 10 ms to 500 ms, there has been an emotional STROOP effect; 2) within 10 ms to 100 ms of stimulus presentation time, emotional STROOP effect size increases linearly, but after 100 ms, there appears a sharp decline; the second experiment adds an embodied operation on the basis of experiment one in order to enhance or inhibit the participants’ understanding of emotion, the result of experiment 2 is a further verification that emotional STROOP effect shows a sharp decline after the 100 ms group due to the disappearance of embodied cognitive influence on emotional cognitive processing. These results indicate that one strategy of cognition system is using our body as a tool to understand the emotion effectively. But this strategy is not the only one and it has a time pressure. The embodied cognition works fast, but if, for some reason, the embodied cognition cannot aid the understanding of emotions, the abstract thinking can also guarantee that we understand the emotions. The result of this study may lead to a conclusion that embodied cognition does occur in the cognition process and body would be used in a rather early stage of the process of emotion understanding.

文章引用:

毕 新 , 杨智钦 (2016) 具身效应发生在情绪认知加工过程的早期。 心理学进展, 6, 576-587. doi: 10.12677/AP.2016.65076

 

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