Vol.6 No.4 (April 2016)
The Development of Children’s Self-Regulation in Elementary School
To examine the development of children’s self-regulation in elementary school, pupils of grade 1, grade 3, and grade 5 in a primary school were selected and their parents finished the tests of at-tention focusing and inhibition control for them. And there was a one-year follow-up study with the same subjects and the same tests. The results were as follows: 1) High-grade students demon-strated higher attention focusing, but there was no significant difference in grades of students’ in-hibition control; 2) Younger children’s inhibition control was better than attention focusing, but this difference was not significant in grades 5-6; 3) The developmental stability of inhibition control increased gradually with the development of grades, but there was no significant difference in grades of the developmental stability of attention focusing. Although inhibition control was rela-tively stable in elementary school, children’s attention focusing presented an increasing tendency. Therefore, the cultivation and promotion of children’s self-regulation should be done as soon as possible.
焦小燕 , 盖笑松 (2016) 小学生自我调节的发展研究。 心理学进展， 6， 398-404. doi: 10.12677/AP.2016.64052
Bernier, A., Carlson, S. M., & Whipple, N. (2010). From External Regulation to Self-Regulation: Early Parenting Precursors of Young Children’s Executive Functioning. Child Development, 81, 326-339.
Kochanska, G., Murray, K., & Coy, K. C. (1997). Inhibitory Control as a Contributor to Conscience in Childhood: From Toddler to Early School Age. Child Development, 68, 263-277.
Kochanska, G., Murray, K. T., & Harlan, E. T. (2000). Effortful Control in Early Childhood: Continuity and Change, Antecedents, and Implications for Social Development. Developmental Psychology, 36, 220-232.
Kochanska, G., & Knaack, A. ( 2003). Effortful Control as a Personality Characteristic of Young Children: Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences. Journal of Personality, 71, 1087-1112.
Matthews, J. S., Ponitz, C. C., & Morrison, F. J. (2009). Early Gender Differences in Self-Regulation and Academic Achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 689-704.
Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (1998). Attention, Self-Regulation and Consciousness. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London: Series B: Biological Sciences, 353, 1915-1927.
Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (2000). Developing Mechanisms of Self-Regulation. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 427-441.
Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Pianta, R. C., & Cox, M. J. (2000). Teachers’ Judgments of Problems in the Transition to Kindergarten. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 15, 147-166.
Rothbart, M. K., Ahadi, S. A., Hershey, K. L., & Fisher, P. (2001). Investigations of Temperament at Three to Seven Years: The Children’s Behavior Questionnaire. Child Development, 72, 1394-1408.
Rothbart, M. K., Sheese, B. E., Rueda, M. R., & Posner, M. I. (2011). Developing Mechanisms of Self-Regulation in Early Life. Emotion Review, 3, 207-213.
 Rothbart, M. K., & Bates, J. E. (2006). Temperament. In W. Da-mon, R. Lerner, & N. Eisenberg (Eds.), Handbook of Child Psychology: Vol. 3. Social, Emotional, and Personality De-velopment (6th ed., pp. 99-166). New York: Wiley.
Rueda, M. R., Rothbart, M. K., McCandliss, B. D., & Posner, P. (2005). Training, Maturation, and Genetic Influences on the Development of Executive Attention. Proceedings of the Na-tional Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 14931-14936.
Sethi, A., Mischel, W., Aber, J. L., Shoda, Y., & Rodriguez, M. L. (2000). The Role of Strategic Attention Deployment in Development of Self-Regulation: Predicting Preschoolers’ Delay of Gratification from Mother-Toddler Interactions. Developmental Psychology, 36, 767-777.
 Simonds, J., & Rothbart, M. K. (2004). The Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ): A Computerized Self-Report Measure of Temperament for Ages 7- 10. Poster Session Presented at the Occasional Temperament Conference, Athens.
Tominey, S. L., & McClelland, M. M. (2011). Red Light, Purple Light: Findings from a Randomized Trial Using Circle Time Games to Improve Behavioral Self-Regulation in Preschool. Early Education and Development, 22, 489-519.
Wiebe, S. A., Sheffield, T. D., & Espy, K. A. (2012). Sepa-rating the Fish from the Sharks: A Longitudinal Study of Preschool Response Inhibition. Child Development, 83, 1245-1261.
Zhou, Q., Hofer, C., Eisenberg, N., Reiser, M., Spinrad, T. L., & Fabes, R. A. (2007). The Developmental Trajectories of Attention Focusing, Attentional and Behavioral Persistence, and Externalizing Problems during School-Age Years. Developmental Psychology, 43, 369-385.