Vol.5 No.5 (May 2015)
The Visual Search Advantage of Angry Body Posture
The visual search advantage of angry faces as threatening emotional information is known as “anger superiority effect”. Body posture is an important source of nonverbal emotional information and has a similar behavior and neural mechanisms with facial expressions. The present study uses the visual search paradigm to investigate that whether real body postures have anger superiority effect as real emotional faces. Results confirmed that angry postures are found more quickly than sad postures in crowds of both neutral and emotional distractors; in the target-absent array, the search speed of anger postures is faster than that of neutral and sad postures. There is visual search advantage in the real anger postures, which demonstrates that real body postures are an effective source of emotional information.
吴 昊 , 陈 旭 , 马建苓 (2015) 愤怒身段表情的视觉搜索优势。 心理学进展， 5， 306-313. doi: 10.12677/AP.2015.55042
 徐展, 李灿举(2014). 情绪面孔搜索不对称性: 情绪观与知觉观的争议. 心理科学进展, 002期, 259-268.
 Ander-son, A. K., & Phelps, E. A. (2001). Lesions of the human amygdala impair enhanced perception of emotionally salient events. Nature, 411, 305-309.
 Atkinson, A. P., Dittrich, W. H., Gemmell, Andrew, J., & Young, A. W. (2004). Emotion perception from dynamic and static body expressions in point-light and full-light displays. Perception-London-, 33, 717-746.
 Aviezer, H., Hassin, R., Bentin, S., & Trope, Y. (2008). Putting facial expressions back in context. First Impressions, 255-286.
 Aviezer, H., Trope, Y., & Todorov, A. (2012). Body cues, not facial expressions, discriminate between intense positive and negative emotions. Science, 338, 1225-1229.
 Bannerman, R. L., Milders, M., & Sahraie, A. (2010). Attentional cueing: fearful body postures capture attention with saccades. Journal of Vision, 10, 23.
 Bannerman, R. L., Milders, M., de Gelder, B., & Sahraie, A. (2009). Orienting to threat: faster localization of fearful facial expressions and body postures revealed by saccadic eye movements. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Bi-ological Sciences, 276, 1635-1641.
 Blanchard, A., & Shiffrar, M. (2011). Does the Threat Advantage Hypothesis Extend to Static Body Postures? Journal of Vision, 11, 108-108.
 de Gelder, B. (2009). Why bodies? Twelve reasons for including bodily expressions in affective neuroscience. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 364, 3475-3484.
 De Gelder, B., & Van den Stock, J. (2011). The bodily expressive action stimulus test (BEAST). Construction and validation of a stimulus basis for measuring perception of whole body expression of emotions. Frontiers in Psychology, 2, 181.
 De Gelder, B., Hortensius, R., & Tamietto, M. (2012). Attention and awareness each influence amygdala activity for dynamic bodily expressions—A short review. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 6.
 De Gelder, B., Snyder, J., Greve, D., Gerard, G., & Hadjikhani, N. (2004). Fear fosters flight: A mechanism for fear contagion when perceiving emotion expressed by a whole body. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, 16701-16706.
 Feldmann-Wüstefeld, T., Schmidt-Daffy, M., & Schubö, A. (2011). Neural evidence for the threat detection advantage: Differential attention allocation to angry and happy faces. Psychophysiology, 48, 697-707.
 Fox, E., & Damjanovic, L. (2006). The eyes are sufficient to produce a threat superiority effect. Emotion, 6, 534-539.
 Fox, E., Lester, V., Russo, R., Bowles, R. J., Pichler, A., & Dutton, K. (2000). Facial expressions of emotion: Are angry faces detected more efficiently? Cognition & Emotion, 14, 61-92.
 Fox, E., Russo, R., & Dutton, K. (2002). Attentional bias for threat: Evidence for delayed disengagement from emotional faces. Cognition & Emotion, 16, 355-379.
 Gilbert, T., Martin, R., & Coulson, M. (2011). Attentional biases using the body in the crowd task: Are angry body postures detected more rapidly? Cognition & Emotion, 25, 700-708.
 Grezes, J., Pichon, S., & De Gelder, B. (2007). Perceiving fear in dynamic body expressions. Neuroimage, 35, 959-967.
 Horstmann, G., & Bauland, A. (2006). Search asymmetries with real faces: Testing the anger-superiority effect. Emotion, 6, 193-207.
 Horstmann, G., Becker, S. I., Bergmann, S., & Burghaus, L. (2010). A reversal of the search asymmetry favouring negative schematic faces. Visual Cognition, 18, 981-1016.
 Kret, M. E., Pichon, S., Grèzes, J., & de Gelder, B. (2011). Similarities and differences in perceiving threat from dynamic faces and bodies: An fMRI study. Neuroimage, 54, 1755-1762.
 LoBue, V. (2009). More than just another face in the crowd: Superior detection of threatening facial expressions in children and adults. Developmental Science, 12, 305-313.
 Ma, J. L., Liu, C., Zhong, X., Wang, L., & Chen, X. (2014). Emotional body-word conflict evokes enhanced N450 and slow potential. PloS ONE, 9, e95198.
 Öhman, A., Juth, P., & Lundqvist, D. (2010). Finding the face in a crowd: Relationships between distractor redundancy, target emotion, and target gender. Cognition and Emotion, 24, 1216-1228.
 Öhman, A., Lundqvist, D., & Esteves, F. (2001). The face in the crowd revisited: a threat advantage with schematic stimuli. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 381-396.
 Pichon, S., de Gelder, B., & Grezes, J. (2008). Emotional modulation of visual and motor areas by dynamic body expressions of anger. Social neuroscience, 3, 199-212.
 Pinkham, A. E., Griffin, M., Baron, R., Sasson, N. J., & Gur, R. C. (2010). The face in the crowd effect: Anger superiority when using real faces and multiple identities. Emotion, 10, 141-146.
 Schmidt-Daffy, M. (2011). Modeling automatic threat detection: Development of a face-in-the-crowd task. Emotion, 11, 153-168.
 Slaughter, V., Stone, V. E., & Reed, C. (2004). Perception of faces and bodies: Similar or different? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13, 219-223.
 Treisman, A. (1988). Features and objects: The fourteenth Bartlett memorial lecture. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 40, 201-237.
 van de Riet, W. A. C., Grèzes, J., & de Gelder, B. (2009). Specific and common brain regions involved in the perception of faces and bodies and the representation of their emotional expressions. Social Neuroscience, 4, 101-120.
 Van den Stock, J., Righart, R., & De Gelder, B. (2007). Body expressions influence recognition of emotions in the face and voice. Emotion, 7, 487-494.
 Van Heijnsbergen, C. C. R. J., Meeren, H. K. M., Grezes, J., & de Gelder, B. (2007). Rapid detection of fear in body expressions, an ERP study. Brain Research, 1186, 233-241.
 Weymar, M., Löw, A., Öhman, A., & Hamm, A. O. (2011). The face is more than its parts—Brain dynamics of enhanced spatial attention to schematic threat. Neuroimage, 58, 946-954.