Vol.5 No.3 (March 2015)
Cognitive Factors of Middle Students with Test Anxiety and the Anxiety Resources
Objective: This study tried to investigate the cognitive factors and sources of test anxiety. Methods: We established a test anxiety inventory, and then used it and the “Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS)” inventory to measure students’ perception of test anxiety in a sample of 810 middle school students. Results: 1) The findings indicate that in the six cognitive factors leading to test anxiety, students have more problems in “responsibility assess”, “consequence assess”, and “event assess”, and the influence of “self-efficacy” on test anxiety is the largest (β = 0.17); 2) Additionally, for grade 3 students, their anxieties much more stem from their parents; in fact, the stress from school and teachers (β = 0.25) as well as the stress from classmates (β = 0.27) are the most strongly related to test anxiety. Conclusion: The cognitive model of test anxiety provided a good fit to the data. This model has great significance in the theory research and practice of test anxiety.
陈思瑶 , 汤永隆 , 唐金玉 , 文 锶 (2015) 中考考试焦虑的认知因素和焦虑来源。 心理学进展， 5， 142-150. doi: 10.12677/AP.2015.53020
 洪明, 王洪礼(2002). 家庭教育失误导致中学生考试焦虑的分析与对策. 心理科学, 6期, 753-754.
 田宝(2001). 高中生考试焦虑影响考试成绩的模式和对策研究. 博士论文, 首都师范大学, 北京.
 汪向东, 王希林, 马宏(1999). 心理卫生评定量表手册. 中国心理卫生杂志(增刊), 208-210.
 郑希付, 高宏章(2003). 考试焦虑的认知因素研究. 心理科学, 1 期, 153-154.
 Abdi, H. M., Bageri, S., Shoghi, S., & Hosseinzadeh, A. (2012). The role of metacognitive and self-efficacy beliefs in students’ test anxiety and academic achievement. Australian Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, 6.
 Armfield, J. M., & Mattiske, J. K. (1996). Vulnerability representation: The role of perceived dan-gerousness, uncontrollability, unpredictability and disgustingness in spider fear. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 34, 899-909.
 Barlow, D. H. (2000). Unraveling the mysteries of anxiety and its disorders from the perspective of emotion theory. American Psychologist, 55, 1247.
 Beck, A. T., Emery, G., & Greenberg, R. L. (2005). Anxiety disorders and phobias: A cognitive perspective. Basic Books.
 Berger, J. I. (2013). Cognitive vilnerabilities associated with test anxiety. Doctoral dissertation, Adler School of Professional Psychology.
 Bethany, A. T., Craig, D. M., & Elise, M. C. (2010). Catastrophic misinterpretations as a predictor of symptom change during treatment for panic disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78, 964-973.
 Bradley, B. P., Mogg, K., & Lee, S. C. (1997). Attentional biases for negative information in induced and naturally occurring dysphoria. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 911-927.
 Eysenck, M. W. (1997). Anxiety and cognition: A unified theory hove. Hove: Psychology Press.
 Farooqi, Y. N., Ghani, R., & Spielberger, C. D. (2012). Gender differences in test anxiety and academic performance of medical students. International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 38-43.
 Flett, G. L., & Blankstein, K. R. (1994). Worry as a component of test anxiety: A multidimensional analysis. In G. C. L. Davey, & F. Tallis (Eds.), Worrying: Perspectives on Theory, Assessment and Treatment (pp. 135-181). Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
 González-Díez, Z., Calvete, E., Riskind, J. H., & Orue, I. (2015). Test of an hypothesized structural model of the relation- ships between cognitive style and social anxiety: A 12 month prospective study. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 30, 59-65.
 Gramer, M., & Sprintschnik, E. (2008). Social anxiety and cardiovascular responses to an evaluative speaking task: The role of stressor anticipation. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 371-381.
 Hallion, L. S., & Ruscio, A. M. (2011). A meta-analysis of the effect of cognitive bias modification on anxiety and depression. Psychological Bulletin, 137, 940-958.
 Johnson, L. E. (2007). Treating test anxiety in students with learning difficulties: An exploratory study. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University.
 Kleiman, E. M., & Riskind, J. H. (2012). Cognitive vulnerability to comorbidity: Looming cognitive style and depressive cognitive style as synergistic predictors of anxiety and depression symptoms. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 43, 1109-1114.
 Leung, P. W., & Poon, M. W. (2001). Dysfunctional schemas and cognitive distortions in psychopa-thology: A test of the specificity hypothesis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42, 755-765.
 Libert, R. M., & Morris, L. W. (1967). Cognitive and emotional components of test anxiety: A distinction and some initial data. Psychological Reports, 20, 975-978.
 Lowe, P. A., & Lee, S. W. (2008). Factor structure of the Test Anxiety Inventory for Children and Adolescents (TAICA) scores across gender among students in elementary and secondary school settings. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 26, 231-246.
 MacLeod, C., & Mathews, A. (2012). Cognitive bias modification approaches to anxiety. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 8, 189-217.
 Muris, P., Mayer, B., Ver-meulen, L., & Hiemstra, H. (2007). Theory-of-mind, cognitive development, and children’s interpretation of anxiety-related physical symptoms. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 2121-2132.
 Nadinloyi, K. B., Sadeghi, H., Garamaleki, N. S., Rostami, H., & Hatami, G. (2013). Efficacy of cognitive therapy in the treatment of test anxiety. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 84, 303-307.
 Pereira, A. I. F., Barros, L., & Mendonça, D. (2012). Cognitive errors and anxiety in school aged children. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 25, 817-823.
 Sarason, I. G. (1988). Anxiety, self-preoccupation and attention. Anxiety Research, 1, 3-7.
 Sarason, I. G., & Sarason, B. R. (1990). Test anxiety. New York: Plenum Press.
 Segool, N. K., Carlson, J. S., Goforth, A. N., Von Der Embse, N., & Barterian, J. A. (2013). Heightened test anxiety among young children: Elementary school students’ anxious responses to high-stakes testing. Psychology in the Schools, 50, 489- 499.
 Simmons, A. N., Flagan, T. M., Wittmann, M., Strigo, I. A., Matthews, S. C., Donovan, H., Lohr, J. B., & Paulus, M. P. (2013). The effects of temporal unpredictability in anticipation of negative events in combat veterans with PTSD. Journal of Affective Disorders, 146, 426-432.
 Smits, J. A. J., Rosenfield, D., McDonald, R., & Telch, M. J. (2006). Cognitive mechanisms of social anxiety reduction: An examination of specificity and temporality. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 1203-1212.
 Spielberger, C. D., Anton, W. D., & Bedell, J. (1976). The nature and treatment of test anxiety: New concepts, methods, and applications (pp. 317-344). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
 Vitasari, P., Nubli, A. M., Othman, A., Herrawan, T., & Sinnadurai, S. K. (2010). The relationship between study anxiety and academic performance among engineering students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 8, 490-497.
 Weems, C. F., Berman, S. L., Silverman, W. K., & Saavedra, L. M. (2001). Cognitive errors in youth with anxiety disorders: The linkages between negative cognitive errors and anxious symptoms. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 25, 559-575.
 Wells, A. (2004). The metacognitive model of GAD: Assessment of meta-worry and relationship with DSM-IV generalized anxiety disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29, 107-121.
 Ergene, T. (2003). Effective interventions on test anxiety reduction: A meta-analysis. School Psychology International, 24, 313-328.
 Zeidner, M. (1998). Test anxiety: The state of the art. New York: Plenum Press.