Vol.5 No.1 (January 2015)
Analysis of Sex Dimorphism and Social Psychological Factors of Social Anxiety Disorder
Researchers have found that there are sex differences in the morbidity rate, symptoms and com-orbidity pattern among the social anxiety disorder group. In view of the social factors, it results from the unequal social environment and the socialization of gender roles. From the psychological perspective, psychological traits with sex differences, such as cognitive abilities, coping style, self-efficacy, etc. result in the phenomenon. In this paper, we review the studies in sex dimorphism of social anxiety disorder, and expect that more attention should be paid to the sex differences in the theoretical and clinical research.
孙易卓 , 王卫红 (2015) 社交焦虑障碍的性别二态性及其社会心理因素分析。 心理学进展， 5， 33-40. doi: 10.12677/AP.2015.51005
 Knappe, S., Beesdo, K., Fehm, L., Lieb, R., & Wittchen, H. U. (2009). Associations of familial risk factors with social fears and social phobia: Evidence for the continuum hypothesis in social anxiety disorder? Journal of Neural Transmission, 116, 639-648.
 Knappe, S., Beesdo-Baum, K., Fehm, L., Lieb, R., & Wittchen, H. U. (2012). Characterizing the association between parenting and adolescent social phobia. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 26, 608-616.
 Kuebli, J., & Fivush, R. (1992). Gender differences in parent-child conversations about past emotions. Sex Roles, 27, 683- 683.
 Magee, W. J., Eaton, W. W., Wittchen, H. U., McGonagle, K. A., & Kessler, R. C. (1996). Agoraphobia, simple phobia, and social phobia in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 159-168.
 McLean, C. P., & Anderson, E. R. (2009). Brave men and timid women? A review of the gender differences in fear and anxiety. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 496-505.
 McLean, C. P., & Hope, D. A. (2010). Subjective anxiety and behavioral avoidance: Gender, gender role, and perceived confirmability of self-report. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 494-502.
 胡寒春, 王洪礼, 邓云龙, 梁燕君(2007). 大学新生交流恐惧的多因素影响模型. 中国心理卫生杂志, 12期, 829-831, 852.
 曾雅丽, 蔡茂华, 宋迎秋(2011). 高校大学生人际敏感与社交焦虑相关因素分析. 社会心理科学, Z1期, 5-8, 35.
 Moscovitch, D. A., Hofmann, S. G., & Litz, B. T. (2005). The impact of self-construals on social anxiety: A gender-specific interaction. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 659-672.
 Muris, P. (2002). Relationships between self-efficacy and symptoms of anxiety disorders and depression in a normal adolescent sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 337-348.
 Muris, P., Meesters, C., & Knoops, M. (2005). The relation between gender role orientation and fear and anxiety in nonclinic-referred children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34, 326-332.
 Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Aldao, A. (2011). Gender and age differences in emotion regulation strategies and their relationship to depressive symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences, 51, 704-708.
 Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2012). Emotion regulation and psychopathology: The role of gender. In S. NolenHoeksema (Ed.), Annual Review of Clinical Psychology (Vol. 8, pp. 161-187). Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.
 Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Jackson, B. (2001). Mediators of the gender difference in rumination. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 25, 37-47.
 Ohayon, M. M., & Schatzberg, A. F. (2010). Social phobia and depression: Prevalence and comorbidity. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 68, 235-243.
 Ollendick, T. H., & Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R. (2002). The developmental psychopathology of social anxiety disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 44-58.
 Peter, S., & Drobnič, S. (2013). Women and their memberships: Gender gap in relational dimension of social inequality. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 31, 32-48.
 Pierce, K. A., & Kirkpatrick, D. R. (1992). Do men lie on fear surveys? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 30, 415-418.
 Pomerantz, E. M., & Ruble, D. N. (1998). The role of maternal gender socialization in the development of sex differences in child self-evaluative mechanisms. Child Development, 68, 558-478.
 Rao, P. A., Beidel, D. C., Turner, S. M., Ammerman, R. T., Crosby, L. E., & Sallee, F. R. (2007). Social anxiety disorder in childhood and adolescence: Descriptive psychopathology. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 1181-1191.
 Ross, C. E., & Mirowsky, J. (2002). Age and the gender gap in the sense of personal control. Social Psychology Quarterly, 65, 125-145.
 Rudy, B. M., Davis III, T. E., & Matthews, R. A. (2012). The relationship among self-efficacy, negative self-referent cognitions, and social anxiety in children: A multiple mediator model. Behavior Therapy, 43, 619-628.
 Schneier, F. R., Johnson, J., Hornig, C. D., Liebowitz, M. R., & Weissman, M. M. (1992). Social phobia—Comorbidity and morbidity in an epidemiologic sample. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 282-288.
 Smith, P. H., White, J. W., & Holland, L. J. (2003). A longitudinal perspective on dating violence among adolescent and college-age women. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 1104-1109.
 Stein, M. B., Walker, J. R., & Forde, D. R. (1994). Setting diagnostic thresholds for social phobia—Considerations from a community survey of social anxiety. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 408-412.
 Stoyanova, M., & Hope, D. A. (2012). Gender, gender roles, and anxiety: Perceived confirmability of self report, behavioral avoidance, and physiological reactivity. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 26, 206-214.
 Sutterby, S. R., Bedwell, J. S., Passler, J. S., Deptula, A. E., & Mesa, F. (2012). Social anxiety and social cognition: The influence of sex. Psychiatry Research, 197, 242-245.
 Thoits, P. A. (1987). Gender and marital status differences in control and distress—Common stress versus unique stress explanations. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 28, 7-22.
 Tolin, D. F., & Foa, E. B. (2006). Sex differences in trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder: A quantitative review of 25 years of research. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 959-959.
 Viana, M. C., & Andrade, L. H. (2012). Lifetime prevalence, age and gender distribution and age-of-onset of psychiatric disorders in the São Paulo metropolitan area, Brazil: Results from the São Paulo megacity mental health survey. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 34, 249-260.
 Wakabayashi, A., & Katsumata, A. (2011). The motion picture mind-reading test. Journal of Individual Differences, 32, 55- 64.
 Wittchen, H. U., & Jacobi, F. (2005). Size and burden of mental disorders in Europe—A critical review and appraisal of 27 studies. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 15, 357-376.
 Wittchen, H. U., Stein, M. B., & Kessler, R. C. (1999). Social fears and social phobia in a community sample of adolescents and young adults: Prevalence, risk factors and comorbidity. Psychological Medicine, 29, 309-323.
 Wood, W., & Eagly, A. H. (2002). A cross-cultural analysis of the behavior of women and men: Implications for the origins of sex differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727.
 刘东台, 李小健(2008). 社交焦虑障碍发展成因探讨. 中国心理卫生杂志, 5期, 376-381.
 Xu, Y., Schneier, F., Heimberg, R. G., Princisvalle, K., Liebowitz, M. R., Wang, S., & Blanco, C. (2012). Gender differences in social anxiety disorder: Results from the national epidemiologic sample on alcohol and related conditions. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 26, 12-19.
 American Psychological Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR®), Washington DC: Author.
 Ballenger, J. C. (2000). Recognizing the patient with social anxiety disorder. International clinical psychopharmacology, 15, S1-S5.
 Barlow, D. H. (1991). Disorders of emotion. Psychological Inquiry, 2, 58-71.
 Yonkers, K. A., Dyck, I. R., & Keller, M. B. (2001). An eight-year longitudinal comparison of clinical course and characteristics of social phobia among men and women. Psychiatric Services, 52, 637-643.
 Bem, S. L. (1981). Gender schema theory: A cognitive account of sex typing. Psychological Review, 88, 354-364.
 Blake, D. D., Cook, J. D., & Keane, T. M. (1992). Post-traumatic stress disorder and coping in veterans who are seeking medical treatment. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 48, 695-695.
 Breslau, N., & Anthony, J. C. (2007). Gender differences in the sensitivity to posttraumatic stress disorder: An epidemiological study of urban young adults. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116, 607.
 Buchanan, T., & Selmon, N. (2008). Race and gender differences in self-efficacy: Assessing the role of gender role attitudes and family background. Sex Roles, 58, 822-836.
 Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing coping strategies: A theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 267-267.
 Chaplin, T. M., Cole, P. M., & Zahn-Waxler, C. (2005). Parental socialization of emotion expression: Gender differences and relations to child adjustment. Emotion, 5, 80-88.
 Derntl, B., Finkelmeyer, A., Eickhoff, S., Kellermann, T., Falkenberg, D. I., Schneider, F., & Habel, U. (2010). Multidimensional assessment of empathic abilities: Neural correlates and gender differences. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35, 67-82.
 Ellsberg, M., Jansen, H., Heise, L., Watts, C. H., & Garcia-Moreno, C., on behalf of the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence against Women Study Team (2008). Intimate partner violence and women’s physical and mental health in the WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence: An observational study. The Lancet, 371, 1165-1172.
 Fivush, R., Brotman, M. A., Buckner, J. P., & Goodman, S. H. (2000). Gender differences in parent-child emotion narratives. Sex Roles, 41, 233-253.
 Garcia-Moreno, C., Jansen, H. A., Ellsberg, M., Heise, L., & Watts, C. H., on behalf of the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence against Women Study Team (2006). Prevalence of intimate partner violence: Findings from the WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence. The Lancet, 368, 1260-1269.
 Ginsburg, G. S., & Silverman, W. K. (2000). Gender role orientation and fearfulness in children with anxiety disorders. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 14, 57-67.
 Heinrichs, N., Rapee, R. M., Alden, L. A., Bögels, S., Hofmann, S. G., Ja Oh, K., & Sakano, Y. (2006). Cultural differences in perceived social norms and social anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 1187-1197.
 Hong, J. J., & Woody, S. R. (2007). Cultural mediators of self-reported social anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 1779-1789.
 Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 593-602.
 Kessler, R. C., Chiu, W. T., Demler, O., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 617-627.
 Kessler, R. C., McGonagle, K. A., Zhao, S. Y., Nelson, C. B., Hughes, M., Eshleman, S., & Kendler, K. S. (1994). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric-disorders in the United States: Results from the National-Comorbidity- Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 8-19.
 Kessler, R. C., & McLeod, J. D. (1984). Sex-differences in vulnerability to undesirable life events. American Sociological Review, 49, 620-631.
 Kessler, R. C., Sonnega, A., Bromet, E., Hughes, M., & Nelson, C. B. (1995). Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 1048-1060.
 Knappe, S., Beesdo, K., Fehm, L., Höfler, M., Lieb, R., & Wittchen, H. U. (2009). Do parental psychopathology and unfavorable family environment predict the persistence of social phobia? Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 986-994.