心理学进展

Vol.4 No.6 (November 2014)

北京市民办农民工子女学校青少年自尊与生活事件的关系
The Relationship of Self-Esteem and Life Change Events of Adolescents in Private Schools for Ecdemic Peasants’ Offspring in Beijing City

 

作者:

黄雪竹 , 徐 波 , 冯 坤 , 孙高翔 , 隋嫚秋 , 刘破资 :清华大学玉泉医院,北京

任冬梅 , 杨 勤 , 李光明 :川北医学院附属南充市中心医院,南充

 

关键词:

青少年自尊生活事件心理教养方式Adolescents Self-Esteem Life Change Events Psychology Educational Style

 

摘要:

目的:对北京市民办农民工子女学校青少年的自尊状况、生活事件进行了解;对影响青少年自尊的生活事件进行性别比较;了解影响青少年自尊的常见生活事件。方法:通过对北京市民办农民工子女学校13~18岁青少年学生进行单纯随机抽样,根据性别、年龄和家庭社会经济状况进行配对共计420人,男性和女性分别为210人,平均年龄15.6 ± 2.4岁。用一般情况资料表、自尊量表(SES)和青少年生活事件量表(ASLEC)进行数据收集。结果:SES得分男性27.2 ± 2.3,女性27.2 ± 2.5,没有性别差异(F = 0.008, P = 0.929);ASLEC得分中,受惩罚因子男性11.4 ± 5.5,女性8.0 ± 4.7 (F = 39.621, P = 0.000);健康适应因子男性3.8 ± 2.6,女性3.2 ± 2.3 (F = 5.566, P = 0.019);其他男性6.1 ± 3.5,女性3.9 ± 2.9 (F = 40.650, P = 0.000)和总分男性41.4 ± 16.6,女性35.8 ± 15.4 (F = 10.955, P = 0.000)得分均为男性高于女性。SES得分与ASLEC得分负相关,偏回归系数男性为−0.141~−0.309,女性为−0.158~−0.361;自尊各条目得分变化可由生活事件或年龄解释的比例为男性为2.3%~12.0%,女性为1.9%~22.1%。影响民办农民工子女学校青少年自尊最常见的生活事件是遭父母打骂和预期评选落空。结论:北京市民办农民工子女学校青少年的自尊水平处于正常范围低水平,男性遭受更多的生活事件及其影响;生活事件对北京市民办民工子女学校青少年自尊的形成、发展和提升有明显的不良影响,同时,自尊内容受到生活事件的影响有性别差异;北京市民办农民工子女学校青少年自尊最常见的生活事件是“遭到父母打骂”和“预期评选落空”。因此,北京市民办农民工子女学校青少年自尊有待提升,有必要教会和加强青少年对生活事件的应对技巧;建议农民工父母学习子女教养的知识和方法,改良学校各项评选、评比活动激励方法。

Objective: To investigate the status and association of self-esteem and life change events, as well as the gender differences of self-esteem influenced by life change events. Method: The adolescents, aged from 13 to 18 years old, were sampled by simple random and paired with gender, age and family income. Both boys and girls were 210 of each group, totally 420, who were educated in private schools for ecdemic peasants’ offspring in Beijing city. Participants completed Self-Esteem Scale (SES) and Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC). Results: The scores of SES were 27.2 ± 2.3 for boys and 27.2 ± 2.5 for girls without difference (F = 0.008, P = 0.929) between the two groups. The boys scored significantly higher on the following ASLEC factors and total ASLEC than girls: punishments with 11.4 ± 5.5 for boys and 8.0 ± 4.7 for girls (F = 39.621, P = 0.000), health adaptation with 3.8 ± 2.6 for boys and 3.2 ± 2.3 for girls (F = 5.566, P = 0.019), and others with 6.1 ± 3.5 for boys and 3.9 ± 2.9 for girls (F = 40.650, P = 0.000), total ASLEC with 41.4 ± 16.6 for boys and 35.8 ± 15.4 for girls (F = 10.955, P = 0.000). The decreasing self-esteem was related to increasing life change events with partial regression coefficient ranged from −0.141 to −0.309 for boys and −0.158 to −0.361 for girls. The percentage of self-esteem change attributed to life change events varied from 2.9% to 12.0% for boys and 1.9% to 22.1% for girls. The maltreatment from parents and fail to expectant appraisal and election most commonly happened on the adolescent participants. Conclusion: Adolescent self-esteem was at low levels of normal range without difference between boys and girls; boys suffered more life change events than girls. Adolescent decreasing self-esteem was related to increasing life change events; maltreatment from parents and fail to expectant appraisal and election were most commonly seen on the adolescent participants. So adolescent self-esteem should be improved and they should learn how to deal with life change events efficiently; the knowledge and skills of educating should be transmitted and taught to the peasant parents with children, and the options of school reward and punishment should be matched with the adolescents’ psychological level and needs.

文章引用:

黄雪竹 , 徐 波 , 任冬梅 , 冯 坤 , 杨 勤 , 孙高翔 , 李光明 , 隋嫚秋 , 刘破资 (2014) 北京市民办农民工子女学校青少年自尊与生活事件的关系。 心理学进展, 4, 729-737. doi: 10.12677/AP.2014.46097

 

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