心理学进展

Vol.4 No.5 (September 2014)

一位丧偶女性的哀伤转化历程及其影响因子之探讨
The Transformation of a Middle-Aged Widow’s Grief and Its Influencing Factors

 

作者:

苏完女 , 林秀珍 :亚洲大学心理学系,台中市

孙旻暐 :中山医学大学社会与性别研究中心,台中市

 

关键词:

丧偶女性调适历程影响因子调适方式A Widowed Woman Adaptation Process Influential Factors Adaptation Strategies

 

摘要:

本文主要探讨一位车祸遗族妇女经历九次,每次1.5~2小时的会谈后,其哀伤经验的转化。另外,本文亦探讨当事人面对配偶死亡的调适方式及影响其哀伤复原的正负向因子。研究方法以临床数据进行质性分析。研究结果发现当事人在生理症状、悲伤情绪、对死亡的想法、人际关系,以及对肇事者态度等方面有明显的哀伤转化。而影响其哀伤转化的负向因子包括:1) 长时期司法诉讼和民事调解过程的挫折;2) 肇事者及其家属事后态度不友善;3) 当事人的依赖性格;4) 无法向母亲表达先生死亡的讯息;5) 死亡的形式突然、无预期导致未竟事宜;6) 死者在家庭中扮演经济支柱及决策者的角色;7) 与死者生前紧密的依附关系;8) 死者死亡时吐舌的样貌;10) 特殊节庆(清明、重阳节);9) 不可哭、不要牵挂亡魂的宗教教义;11) 华人文化对寡妇的禁锢(寡妇门前是非多,从一而终的婚姻观)。此外,本研究也发现有助于当事人哀伤复原的正向因子,包括:1) 多元的支持系统;2) 对司法正义的信任;3) 肇事者及家属的善意回应;4) 案子求职顺利及工作态度受肯定足以告慰亡夫。除此之外,当事人积极为死者作些事、利用刮砂抒解情绪、参与户外活动转移哀伤痛苦、学习放下让自己走出思念,也帮助先生得以安心离开、同理肇事者事故非其所愿、放下对民事理赔的期待等方式让自己走出悲伤,另一方,当事人也努力规划自己经济的独立,找到生活重心而能重新出发。本研究结果和国外有关哀伤的研究结果(Worden, 2008)有其相似性,但也深受华人文化影响(Hsu & Kahn, 2003; 曹桂荣,2005;蔡文瑜,2001)而有不一样的哀伤经验和影响因素,显示哀伤经验和影响哀伤调适的因素有其宗教和文化的特殊性。

This purpose of this study was to explore the adaptation process and strategies of a woman who had lost her husband in her middle age. Data were collected from 9 counseling sessions and analyzed under three themes: grief transformation process, the mediators of mourning and adaptation strategies. After 9 counseling sessions (1.5 - 2 hrs each session), the client had significant im-provement in physical and emotional responses, to rebuild social networks, reconstruct the meaning of the death, and change her attitude to the criminal. Other finding of this research indi-cated that there were many factors influencing the recovering process. Identified negative factors included: the attitude of the criminal and/or their families; the sudden and unexpected death; the main economic and social role of the deceased; the attachment relationships with the deceased; the face expression of the dead; no permission to disclose the fact of her husband’s dead to her elderly mother; the personality traits of the bereaved; no crying and missing permitted in Buddhism; some cultural taboos for the widows, and some folk festivals will continue to arouse the client’s grief. Besides the negative influencing factors, there are some positive factors contributing to her grief recovery, for example: multiple social supports from families, friends, & counselors; the faith of legal justice; the friendly attitude of the criminal and/or their families; her child got a job and his active working attitude can comfort the soul of the dead. The bereaved had employed a variety of strategies to cope with her loss, such as, doing something for the deceased, experiencing catharsis by scraping, transferring attention by attending outdoor activities, letting go of her suffering and missing, feeling empathy with the criminal’s situation, no longer looking forward to getting a reasonable compensation and keeping continuing bond with the deceased by casing the divining blocks, burning incense, talking to the deceased, dreaming of the deceased, going over pictures and keeping the cell phone of the deceased. This finding exemplified the crucial impact of unique Chinese cultural characteristics on the grief and adaptation process (Hsu & Kahn, 2003; 曹桂荣,2005;蔡文瑜,2001). Implications for the practice of mental health and counselor education and suggestions for future researches are discussed.

文章引用:

苏完女 , 林秀珍 , 孙旻暐 (2014) 一位丧偶女性的哀伤转化历程及其影响因子之探讨。 心理学进展, 4, 674-683. doi: 10.12677/AP.2014.45090

 

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