Vol.4 No.3 (May 2014)
Dissociation and Interaction between
Prediction Levels and Stimulus Properties in Conditioned Fear
Conditioned fear is caused by not only stimulus properties but also prediction level. Then what dissociation and interaction are between prediction levels and stimulus properties? Using event-related potentials (ERP), prediction levels were divided as unprediction and prediction; stimulus properties were divided as neutral and aversion stimulus. Use 2 × 2 within-subjects experimental design, to explore the dissociation between prediction levels and stimulus properties in the acquisition phase of conditioned fear. These data found that: the ERP between the stimulus properties had a significant difference at an early stage of processing under prediction; the ERP between the stimulus properties did not have a significant difference at an early stage of processing under unprediction; the ERP of different stimulus properties had a significant difference under different prediction levels. The results showed there were dissociation and interaction between prediction levels and stimulus properties in conditioned fear.
曾祥星 , 郑楚华 , 庄楚群 , 杜 娟 , 郑希付 (2014) 预测水平、刺激性质在条件性恐惧形成中的分离与交互效应。 心理学进展， 4， 400-408. doi: 10.12677/AP.2014.43056
 庄锦英(2006). 决策心理学. 上海: 上海教育出版社.
 Badia, P., Suter, S., & Lewis, P. (1967). Preference for warned shock: Information and/or preparation. Psychological Reports, 20, 271-274.
 Bouton, M. E. (2002). Context, ambiguity, and unlearning: Sources of relapse after behavioral extinction. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 976 -986.
 Bouton, M. E., García-Gutiérrez, A., Zilski, J., & Moody, E. W. (2006). Extinction in multiple contexts does not necessarily make extinction less vulnerable to relapse. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 983-994.
 Cantor, M. B., & LoLordo, V. M. (1970). Rats prefer signaled reinforcing brain stimulation to unsignaled ESB. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 71, 183-191.
 Davis, M., Walker, D. L., & Myers, K. M. (2003). Role of the amygdala in fear extinction measured with potentiated startle. Annals of the New York Academy Sciences, 985, 218-232.
 Foa, E. B., Zinbarg, R., & Rothbaum, B. O. (1992). Uncontrollability and unpredictability in post-traumatic stress disorder. An animal model. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 218-238.
 Felmingham, K. L., Williams, L. M., Kemp, A. H., Rennie, C., Gordon, E., & Bryant, R. A. (2009). Anterior cingulate activity to salient stimuli is modulated by autonomic arousal in posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry Research, 173, 59-62.
 Grillon, C., Baas, J. P., Lissek, S., Smith, K., & Milstein, J. (2004). Anxious responses to predictable and unpredictable aversive events. Behavioral Neuroscience, 118, 916-924.
 Grillon, C., Lissek, S., Rabin, S., McDowell, D., Dvir, S., & Pine, D. S. (2008). Increased anxiety during anticipation of unpredictable but not predictable aversive stimuli as a psychophysiologic marker of panic disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 898-904.
 Grillon, C., Daniel, S., Lissek, P. S., Rabin, S., Bonne, O., & Vythilingam, M. (2009). Increased anxiety during anticipation of unpredictable aversive stimuli in posttraumatic stress disorder but not in generalized anxiety disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 66, 47-53.
 Jin, Y., Yan, K., Zheng, Y. H., Jiang, Y. J., Tao, R., & Zheng, X. F. (2013). Gender differences in detecting unanticipated stimuli: An ERP study. Neuroscience Letters, 538, 38-42.
 Kim, J. J., & Jung, M. W. (2006). Neural circuits and mechanisms involved in Pavlovian fear conditioning: A critical review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 30, 188-202.
 Kindt, M., & Soeter, M. (2013). Reconsolidation in a human fear conditioning study: A test of extinction as updating mechanism. Biological Psychology, 91, 43-50.
 Lang, P. J., Bradley, M. M., & Cuthbert, B. N. (2008). International affective picture system (IAPS): Affective ratings of pictures and instruction manual. Technical Report, A-8.
 LeDoux, J. E. (2000). Emotion circuits in the brain. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 23, 155-184.
 Lockard, J. S. (1965). Choice of a warning signal or none in several unavoidable shock situations. Psychonomic Science, 3, 5-6.
 Maren, S. (2001). Neurobiology of Pavlovian fear conditioning. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 24, 897-931.
 Moberg, C. A., & Crutin, J. J. (2009). Alcohol selectively reduces anxiety but not fear: Startle response during unpredictable vs. predictable threat. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118, 335-347.
 Pervin, L. A. (1963). The need to predict and control under conditions of threat. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 31, 570-585.
 Rescorla, R. A. (2004). Spontaneous recovery. Learning & Memory, 11, 501-509.
 Seligman, M. E. P., & Binik, Y. M. (1977). The safety-signal hypothesis. In H. Davis & H. M. B. Hurwitz (Eds.), Operant-Pavlovian Interactions (pp. 165-187). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
 Suna, N., Qua, C., Zhaoa, S. C., Yua, L. Y., & Zheng, X. F. (2011). Allocation of attention in response to novel neutral stimuli and predictive negative stimuli in men and women: An event-related potentials research study. Biological Rhythm Research, 1, 1-9.
 Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., & Lusthene, R. E. (1970). Manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.
 Weiss, J. M. (1971). Effects of coping behavior in different warning signal conditions on stress pathology in rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 77, 1-13.