心理学进展

Vol.42.asp; No.11&12 (March 2014)

谬误相关对大学生在中性国家态度之影响
The Influence of the Illusory Correlation Effect on the Evaluative Attitude of Neutral Countries

 

作者:

刘浩瑄 , 刘哲玮 , 许雅棋 , 沈 驞 :中山医学大学心理学系暨临床心理学硕士班,台中市

孙旻暐 :中山医学大学心理学系暨临床心理学硕士班,台中市;中山医学大学附设医院,台中市;中山医学大学社会与性别研究中心,台中市

 

关键词:

主要团体谬误相关弱势团体Majority Group Illusory Correlation Minority Group

 

摘要:

HamiltonGifford(1976)提出的谬误相关(illusory correlation),显示了弱势团体(minority group)会比主要团体(majority group)显得特殊与奇特,而且就小团体与大团体而言,人们更容易把负向的事物归类到小团体,而人们本身态度也会影响到这个效果。我们思考:利用谬误相关来推论这样的结果是否也会反应在人们对于国家的评价上,是否真的对于接收到较少讯息量的国家容易产生负向观感,于是我们操弄两个中性国家,用正向与负向的叙述句来操弄受试者对于这些国家的观感,进而导致谬误相关。为了消除参与者本身对于国家的评价产生的影响,我们实施了一项前置研究(pilot study)利用李克特氏七点量表请中山医学大学的学生(N = 25)来评分并经由结果选出了两个最为中性的国家,同时也选出了36句足够正、负向的陈述句(24句正向和12句负向)来当作施测之材料。在正式施测时随机抽选中山医学大学的两个班级进行施测,藉由操控陈述句的数量来让参与者知觉到大小团体(国家)并让他们自评大小团体中的正、负向陈述句共有几句。最后结果显示,小国家的负向陈述句确实有提升,达到统计上的显着;但是不只是小国家的负向,其他的陈述句类别也同时有达到显着差异。

Hamilton and Gifford (1976) found the “illusory correlation”, which means that the minority group is more special and unique than the majority group and gives the minority group a negative evaluation. According to this phenomenon, the negative evaluation causes the negative behaviors more relative to the minority group membership. Our team guesses this stereotype of the fictitious groups maybe exist in the real groups. For example, the phenomenon maybe occurs in the evaluation of the country. To remove the error by the individual attitude to the country, we chose two countries by the pilot study which asks the subjects to select the degree of preference to some countries from 1 to 7. Another pilot study was to choose the positive and negative sentences which describe the countries. In the experiment, we operated the number of positive and negative sentences to the two groups that are the majority and minority group defined by the number of sum of descriptive sentences, but fixed the percent of two typical sentences, to influence the attitude to the two countries of subjects. As a result, there is no significant between the two groups in the number of recall negative sentences. But in another respect, in the percent of negative recall sentences, minority groups are significantly more than majority groups by studying the percent of discrepancy between the real number and data.

文章引用:

刘浩瑄 , 孙旻暐 , 刘哲玮 , 许雅棋 , 沈 驞 (2014) 谬误相关对大学生在中性国家态度之影响。 心理学进展, 4, 263-270. doi: 10.12677/AP.2014.42038

 

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