Vol.4 No.2 (March 2014)
Children’s Mastery of the Concepts of
Procedural and Distributive Justice
Reflected in a Distribution Activity
摘要:基于表征重述模型的“隐性–显性”角度，通过真实性团体分配任务，探讨5~9岁儿童(N = 120)在程序正义与分配正义概念上的掌握和经回馈获得的发展，以及同理心对分配过程和分配结果的作用。结果显示，被试对程序正义概念的掌握，整体发展水平较低。在程序正义与分配正义概念掌握上，被试对公平程序、平等和需要概念的隐性掌握(通过行为表现)均显著高于显性掌握(通过言语解释)。儿童对程序正义概念与平等概念的掌握在5~7岁之间有显著提高，对需要概念的掌握则未呈现显著年龄差异。回馈促进了儿童采用协商及较公平的程序(反映程序正义概念的隐性水平)。同理心唤醒操纵对分配程序和结果未产生明显作用。
Through the design of a real-life distribution activity in small groups, the present study investigated the development of children’s concepts of procedural and distributive justice in the implicit-explicit dimension based on Karmiloff-Smith’s Representational Redescription model (1992). The role of empathy in the process and outcome of distribution was also examined. A total of 120 children aged 5 to 9 years participated in the study. The results indicated that participants’ mastery level of the concept of procedural justice was on the whole relatively low. For the conceptual understanding of both procedural justice and distributive justice (including the subconcepts of equality and need), participants performed significantly higher on the implicit level (reflected by actual behaviors during the distribution activity) than on the explicit level (reflected by verbal explanations). Significant growth by age was found between the 5- and 7-year-old groups in the six indices of just procedures and mastery of the concept of equality, but no significant age differ- ence was found in the mastery of the concept of need. The effect of feedback was supported by the improvement of group performance in negotiation and the use of just procedures, as well as the improvement in individual members’ verbal suggestions concerning just procedures. These improvements are at the implicit level of the concept of procedural justice. The results did not show a marked effect of empathetic arousal on the process and outcome of the distribution activity.
徐华女 , 黄蕴智 (2014) 团体分配中儿童对程序正义与分配正义概念的掌握。 心理学进展， 4， 239-251. doi: 10.12677/AP.2014.42036
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