现代物理

Vol.3 No.4 (September 2013)

重新认识固体热运动规律
Re-Know the Laws of Thermal Motion of Solids

 

作者:

余子山 :徐州市农委,徐州

 

关键词:

热运动内能热容量简谐振动自由粒子固体模型Thermal Motion Internal Energy Thermal Capacity Harmonious Vibration Free Particle Solid Model

 

摘要:

本文深入分析德拜内能函数的局限性,证明德拜内能严重偏离固体内能规律,认为“低温条件下德拜T3与实验符合很好”是假象而非科学。论文进一步揭示固体内能的一般规律,描绘固体内能曲线,对固体0点能和特征温度的认识有新突破,并提出确定0点能和特征温度的实用方法。论文认为:原子振动恢复力来源于原子内部,而不是原子间相互作用;原子热运动平均幅度随温度升高而减小,随温度降低而增大;原子热运动形式高温呈简谐振动,而低温呈陷阱中自由粒子等新观点,并建构了新的固体微观结构模型。本文提出了若干原创性的新观点,这些新的认识改变了一些现有观念,对深化认识固体微观结构和微观运动具有重要意义,为进一步研究固体热运动规律,特别是低温领域研究,催生原创性的新理论,促进固体物理学基础理论的发展起到了方向性的指导作用。
The limitations of the Debye internal energy function have been deeply analyzed, and the result indicates that “the Debye T3 law agrees with experiments in low temperatures” is an illusion. The analyzation reveals the general law of internal energy of solids and sketches its curve. It reaches some breakthrough viewpoints about the zero point energy and the characteristic temperature and provides practical means to determine both of them. It proposes that the vibration resilience of an atom comes not from interaction with its neighbor atoms but from inner itself, which means radius of atomic thermal-motion is getting bigger with temperature decreasing while it is getting smaller with temperature in-creasing. With temperature decreasing to absolute zero point, the harmonious vibration form of atomic thermal-motion changes into free particle in trap. Based on the fresh viewpoints, a new micro-structure model of solids is founded. These original viewpoints have important significances for both to know micro-structure and micro-motions of solids, and to change some existing notions; further more, these will serve as guidance for both to research the laws mi-cro-motion of solids (especially in low temperatures) and to yield some original theories to expand foundation theories of solid state physics.

文章引用:

余子山 (2013) 重新认识固体热运动规律。 现代物理, 3, 114-123. doi: 10.12677/MP.2013.34020

 

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